Professional Development Course on Catering for Diversity in English Language Teaching
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Professional Development Course on Catering for Diversity in English Language Teaching ENG5316 Assessing Diversity in English Language Learning. Session 5 Assessment of oral language and behaviour. The Nature of Oral Language Ability.

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Professional Development Course on Catering for Diversity in English Language TeachingENG5316Assessing Diversity in English Language Learning

Session 5

Assessment of oral language and behaviour

Prepared by YANG, Chi Cheung Ruby, Department of English, HKIEd


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The Nature of Oral Language Ability English Language Teaching

  • Children use oral language either in conversation or in extended talk.

  • In conversations, speakers are supported by feedback from other speakers.

  • In extended talk, speakers must monitor their audience’s response and adapt, if necessary, to convey the message more clearly.


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Assessment of Oral Language English Language Teaching

  • Structurally, language can be viewed as having five components: phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics.

  • Each of these five components involves both reception and expression.


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Assessment of Oral Language English Language Teaching

  • Phonology involves the use of phonemes, the smallest significant units of sound that are combined into words, to create meaning.

  • The assessment of phonology involves both the aural discrimination of speech sounds and the articulation of speech sounds.


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Assessment of Oral Language English Language Teaching

  • Morphology is concerned with how phonemes are put together to give meaning.

  • Example of assessment instrument: Test for Examining Expressive Morphology


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Assessment of Oral Language English Language Teaching

  • Syntax involves how words are put together to form sentences.

  • Assessment of syntax involves the measurement of the understanding of the meaning of sentences and the ability to formulate sentences.


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Assessment of Oral Language English Language Teaching

  • Semantics refers to the meaning of words.

  • The assessment of semantics skills usually involves the measurement of a person’s receptive and expressive vocabulary skills.

  • Receptive vocabulary can be measured using instruments such as the Peabody Vocabulary Test.

  • Expressive vocabulary measures are included on tests such as Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.


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Assessment of Oral Language English Language Teaching

Guidelines for Observing Oral Communication

8


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Speech and Language Disorders English Language Teaching

Speech disorders affect the clarity, voice quality, and fluency of a child’s spoken words.

Language disorders affect a child’s ability to hold meaningful conversations, understand others, and express thoughts through spoken or written word.

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Speech Disorders English Language Teaching

Screening for Speech Disorders

10


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Informal Assessment of Oral Language English Language Teaching

  • Formal language testing usually occurs in a contrived situation.


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Informal Assessment of Oral Language English Language Teaching

  • One approach that can be used to evaluate the spontaneous use of language in a naturalistic setting is language sampling. This usually involves eliciting an individual’s language.

  • The procedures for obtaining a language sample include:

    • a spontaneous sample taken during free play or conversation

    • an elicited sample asking the child to respond to questions, pictures, etc.


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Different Types of Oral Language Assessment English Language Teaching

Storytelling

Picture description

Oral presentations

Question-and-answer tasks

Mini-dialogues and role plays

Information-gap tasks

Group discussions

Total physical response (TPR) tasks

Dictation

13


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Activity 1 English Language Teaching

In pairs/small groups, discuss some ways in which your school/department could involve pupils with special educational needs more fully in learning oral language. Remember to justify your decisions.

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Assessment of Behavior English Language Teaching

  • Brainstorming:

    Try to list the sources that a teacher can collect information about his/her student’s current and past classroom behavior.


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Sources of Information About Classroom Behavior English Language Teaching

School Records

The students

Teachers

Parents

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Functional Behavioral Assessment English Language Teaching

  • Information to determine why a student displays a specific behavior can be obtained through three broad methods of assessment:

    • Indirect method

    • Direct observation method

    • Functional behavioral analysis method


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Functional Behavioral Assessment English Language Teaching

  • Indirect Method

    • It includes techniques such as interviewing the classroom teacher and parents, reviewing data in the school records, completing behavioral rating scales, checklists, and so on (Overton, 2009).


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Functional Behavioral Assessment English Language Teaching

Behavioral Checklists


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Functional Behavioral Assessment English Language Teaching

  • Rating scales

    • A rating questionnaire may be similar in content to a checklist, although the respondent rates the answer.

    • For example, the format of the checklist would change so that the respondent would rate student behaviors as ‘never’, ‘almost never’, ‘sometimes’, ‘somewhat often’, ‘frequently’, or ‘almost always’ (Overton, 2009).


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Functional Behavioral Assessment English Language Teaching

  • Direct Observation Techniques

    • The student is observed in the environment in which the behaviors are occurring.

    • Several techniques may be employed: anecdotal recording, event recording, time sampling, duration recording, and interresponse time.


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Functional Behavioral Assessment English Language Teaching

  • Anecdotal recording

    • The teacher observes the student and writes down everything that occurs (Overton, 2009).


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Functional Behavioral Assessment English Language Teaching

  • Event recording

    • It assesses the frequency with which behaviors occur.


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Functional Behavioral Assessment English Language Teaching

  • Time sampling

    • The teacher identifies the target behaviors and records student activity for a time period, such as 2 or 5 minutes, throughout the period or day (Overton, 2009).


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Functional Behavioral Assessment English Language Teaching

  • Duration recording

    • This technique is used when the length of the behavior is the target variable of the behavior (Overton, 2009).


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Functional Behavioral Assessment English Language Teaching

  • Interresponse time

    • It assesses the length of time between the behaviors or responses.

    • For example, a student may be distracted or off task every 2 minutes between the observation period of 2 to 3 pm, but become distracted only every 20 minutes during the observation period of 10 to 11 am (Overton, 2009).


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Functional Behavioral Assessment English Language Teaching

  • Functional Behavioral Analysis

    • It goes beyond observation to gather the information needed to plan positive behavioral interventions for students with problem behaviors.

    • It makes use of a variety of informal assessment techniques.


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Functional Behavioral Assessment English Language Teaching

Describing the Target Behavior

Identifying Factors That Influence the Behavior

Generating a Hypothesis

Program Planning

Functional Behavioral Analysis


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Functional Behavioral Assessment English Language Teaching

  • Describing the target behavior

    • The behavior must be observable and measurable.

  • Identifying factors that influence the behavior

    • In order to arrive at hypotheses about possible causes, it is necessary to gather information from other sources. These sources are the persons who know the student best; the student him/herself and the student’s teachers.

    • Interviews are typically used for data collection.


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Functional Behavioral Assessment English Language Teaching

  • Generating a hypothesis

    • This hypothesis must take into account the behavior itself and the setting, antecedents (the variables triggering the behavior), and possible consequences that follow the behavior.

  • Program planning

    • The plan includes objectives related to the replacement behaviors and a data collection system for monitoring the progress.


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Activity 2 English Language Teaching

Identify a student in your class who has behavioural problems. Then try to use Functional Behavioural Analysis to analyse your student’s behaviour. Be prepared to share with other participants.

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Instruments for the Assessment of Behavior: Some examples English Language Teaching

  • Classroom and home behavior instruments

    • Behavior Rating Profile

    • Devereux Behavior Rating Scale - School Form

  • ADHD instruments

    • Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale

    • Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Test

  • Autism instruments

    • Autism Screening Instrument for Educational Planning

    • Gilliam Autism Rating Scale


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Instruments for the Assessment of Behavior: Some examples English Language Teaching

  • Classroom and home behavior instruments

    • Behavior Rating Profile

    • Devereux Behavior Rating Scale - School Form


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Instruments for the Assessment of Behavior: Some examples English Language Teaching

  • ADHD instruments

    • Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale

    • Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Test


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Instruments for the Assessment of Behavior: Some examples English Language Teaching

  • Autism instruments

    • Autism Screening Instrument for Educational Planning

    • Gilliam Autism Rating Scale


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References English Language Teaching

  • McLoughlin, J. A. & Lewis, R. B. (2008). Assessing students with special needs (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.

  • Overton, T. (2009). Assessing learners with special needs: An applied approach (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.

  • Spinelli, C. G. (2006). Classroom assessment for students in special and general education (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.

  • Taylor, R. L. (2000). Assessment of exceptional students: Educational and psychological procedures (5th ed.). Boston, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.


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