History trends in health care
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History & Trends in Health Care. TPJ 3M Academy 2010. Ancient Times. Disease and illness caused by evil spirits and demons, punishments from the gods, Treatments tried to eliminate the evil spirits, religious rites were used to restore health

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History & Trends in Health Care

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History trends in health care

History & Trends inHealth Care

TPJ 3M

Academy 2010


Ancient times

Ancient Times

  • Disease and illness caused by evil spirits and demons, punishments from the gods,

  • Treatments tried to eliminate the evil spirits, religious rites were used to restore health

  • Exploring the human body was difficult because most religions did not allow dissection


Egyptians

Egyptians

  • First to keep health records – kept by priests and written on stone


Chinese

Chinese

  • Strong belief in the need to cure the spirit and nourish the body

  • Holistic health stressing the entire patient; body, mind and soul


Greeks

Greeks

  • Hippocrates (ca 430-377 BC) – “The father of medicine”- kept records. These records helped establish that disease is caused by natural causes NOT supernatural spirits or demons

  • First to stress good diet and cleanliness to help prevent disease


Romans

Romans

  • Realised that some diseases were connected with filth, contaminated water and poor sanitation

  • Created sanitation systems, built sewers, aquaducts

  • Drained marshland to reduce malaria

  • Implemented laws to keep streets clean and eliminate garbage


Dark ages

Dark Ages

  • After the fall of the Roman empire the study of medicine stopped

  • Individuals again lived in unsanitary conditions

  • Little or no personal hygiene

  • Epidemics arose; smallpox, dysentry, typhus, bubonic plague


Middle ages

Middle Ages

  • Renewed interest in medical practices of the Greeks and Romans

  • Handwritten records were kept

  • Medical universities arose (9th century)

  • Arabic states began to train and expect physicians to pass exams to obtain licences


1300s

1300s

  • 75% of the population of Europe and Asia died of Bubonic plague

  • Smallpox, diphtheria, tuberculosis, typhoid, malaria killed many others

  • Average lifespan – 20-35 years

  • Infant mortality was high


The renaissance 1350 1650 ad

The Renaissance (1350-1650 AD)

  • The “rebirth of science and medicine”

  • Dissection of human corps was allowed and was the source of much of the new knowledge

  • Artists; Michelangelo and da Vinci were able to draw the human body accurately

  • Development of printing presses allowed for publications of medical books

  • Knowledge spread more rapidly

  • Physicians were more educated


The 16 th 18 th centuries

The 16th – 18th centuries

  • William Harvey – circulation of blood

  • Gabriel Fallopius- tympanic membrane in the ear and the fallopian tube

  • Bartolomeo Eustachio – tube connecting ear and throat

  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek – created the microscope

  • Edward Jenner- Smallpox vaccine

  • Lifespan- 40-50 years


Industrial revolution the 19 th century

Industrial Revolution- The 19th century

  • Major progress because of the development of machines and the access to books

  • Rene Naennec – invented the stethoscope

  • Florence Nightingale – established sanitary nursing units for soldiers injured in the Crimean war (founder of modern nursing)

  • Theodor Fliedner, Joseph Lister and Louis Pasteur were created systems to reduce the spread of tiny microorganisms that caused disease

  • Lifespan- 40-65 years


Louis pasteur

Louis Pasteur

  • Stopped milk and wine from causing sickness- pasteurization

  • Vaccine for rabies and anthrax

  • Rabies vaccine was first used on 9-year old Joseph Meister, on July 6, 1885, after the boy was badly mauled by a rabid dog.


20 th century

20th century

  • Rapid growth of health care

  • New machines; x-ray

  • New medicines; insulin for diabetes, antibiotics to fight infection, vaccines to prevent disease,

  • Cause of disease was identified

  • Watson and Crick described the structure of DNA

  • Health care plans helped cover medical costs

  • Surgery techniques were improved and less fatal

  • Lifespan- 60-80 years


21 st century

21st century

  • Tell me what you’ve heard about……


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