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Chapter 7: Cell Structure and function. 7.1 Life is cellular. Cells: Tiny units that comprise all organisms. Microscopic (too small to see by eye) Less than 100 µm in diameter (0.00010 m or 0.1mm). 7.2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure. What are the major cell structures?

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Chapter 7: Cell Structure and function

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Chapter 7: Cell Structure and function

7.1 Life is cellular


Cells: Tiny units that comprise all organisms

Microscopic (too small to see by eye)

Less than 100 µm in diameter (0.00010 m or 0.1mm)


7.2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure

What are the major cell structures?

What are their functions?


These websites provide visual and spoken descriptions of cells and their parts.www.cellsalive.comwww.learngenetics.utah (cell link).


Check your knowledge by completing the questions in the next slides. If your answers are incorrect, then use the information on the slide itself or the surrounding slides to correct your understanding..

Select “view slide show, starting from this slide” from the tool bar above to see your answer after you have attempted to answer it!


7.1 #11 In the human body, organs perform specialized jobs. For example, the heart transports blood. In cells, tiny ___________ carry out specialized jobs.

20

  • tissues

  • Organ systems

  • organelles

  • Organ systems


Prokaryotes have no membrane bound organelles, including nuclei, in their cells. Eukaryote cells contain membrane bound organelles in the cells

Prokaryoteeukaryote

Naked DNADNA in membrane bound nucleus

Ribosomesribosomes

Cytoplasmcytoplasm (cytosol)

Cytoskeletoncytoskeleton

Plasma membraneplasma membrane

Cell wall (some)Cell wall (some protists, all plants, & fungi)

Flagella & cilia (some)flagella & cilia (some)

All: golgi, smooth & rough endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, vacuoles, lysosomes or peroxisomes, mitochondria some: chloroplasts


Animals and plants are always multicellular with specialized cells. Most protists are unicellular organisms, although some are colonial (cells are clumped together but do not depend on each other or do specialized jobs)

Cells in a leaf cells in gut

Yeasts, molds (fungi) mushroom protists


7.1 #12 Which type of eukaryotes are often single celled (unicellular)?

10

  • bacteria

  • protists

  • Fungi like yeasts & molds

  • Mushroom-bearing fungi

  • Plants like trees

  • Animals like brine shrimp or small insects


Note these drawings of animal and plant cells. Which does NOT have a cell wall outside it’s plasma membrane? Fungi also have cell walls; so do some protists and some bacteria. Cells walls are made of cellulose in plants, chitin in fungi, peptidoglycan in eubacteria. Cell walls extra support & extra protection for cells.


7.2 #2 Cell walls protect cells from bursting and provide them support against pressure (so they don’t get crushed). Which kingdom (the only one) NEVER has cell walls?

  • Animal

  • Archaebacteria

  • Eubacteria

  • Fungi

  • Protists

  • plants


7.2 #3 The job of a cell wall is to:

  • Protect and provide support

  • Allow cells to photosynthesize

  • Surround the cytoplasm


7.2 #4 Cell walls in plants are made out of?

  • chitin

  • cellulose

  • Phospholipid bilayers

  • Peptidoglycan

  • proteins


7.2 #5 Which structure is found in (specific to)a plant cell,but not an animal cell.

20

  • Chloroplasts

  • lysosomes

  • mitochondria

  • Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)

  • Smooth ER (SER)

  • Cell walls


7.2 #6 Which is the organelle that holds thecells DNA (its genome) and is the control center of the cell?

20

  • centriole

  • mitochondria

  • nucleolus

  • Nucleus

  • cytoplasm


7.2 #7 What molecules inside the nucleus allow it to serve as the cell’s control center?

20

  • DNA

  • carbohydrates

  • proteins

  • Lipids

  • RNA


7.2 #11 When you view eukaryotic cells vialight microscopy, you see a small dark, denseregion inside the nucleus. It is called the:

20

  • ribosome

  • nucleolus

  • nucleoplasm

  • Nuclear membrane

  • Nuclear pore


7.2 #12 These organelles are assembled in nucleoli.

15

  • golgi

  • ribosomes

  • vacuoles

  • lysosomes


7.2 #13 The nuclear envelope is made of a double layer of ___________ surrounding the nucleus.

20

  • proteins

  • Nucleic acids

  • carbohydrates

  • phospholipids


7.2 #14 The structure composed of a networkof protein filaments whose job is supporting the cell’s shape, allowing cell movement, &moving organelles inside the cell is the:

20

  • Cell membrane

  • Cell wall

  • Cytoskeleton

  • Cilium, flagellum


7.2 #16 What is the difference between Roughendoplasmic reticulum (RER) and SER?

30

  • SER is used to transport material from place to place inside the cell

  • RER is used to transport material from place to place inside the cell

  • SER is a tube made of cell membrane

  • Ribosomes attached to RER inject proteins into it, then enzymes modify the proteins.


7.2#17 Which is true of peroxisomes & lysosomes?

30

  • Contain enzymes to make lipids

  • Break down & recycle old cell structures & contain enzymes that digest lipids, carbohydrates & proteins

  • Modify proteins

  • Store genetic information


7.2 #18 Ribosomes

30

  • Use light energy to make carbohydrates

  • Attach carbohydrate & lipid chains to proteins--marking them for export to the cell membrane—looks like a stack of pancakes.

  • Make ATP to allow cells to use energy in food

  • Are membrane tube s whose enzymes construct components of membranes & modify proteins

  • Are membrane sacs used for storage

  • Synthesize proteins following gene instructions

  • Are membrane sacs filled with digestive enzymes used to break down food to smaller particles or to recycle worn out organelles.


7.2 #19 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER):

30

  • Use light energy to make carbohydrates

  • Attach carbohydrate & lipid chains to proteins--marking them for export to the cell membrane—looks like a stack of pancakes.

  • Make ATP to allow cells to use energy in food

  • Are membrane tube s whose enzymes construct components of membranes & modify proteins

  • Are membrane sacs used for storage

  • Synthesize proteins following gene instructions

  • Are membrane sacs filled with digestive enzymes used to break down food to smaller particles or to recycle worn out organelles.


7.2 #20 Golgi apparatus:

30

  • Use light energy to make carbohydrates

  • Attach carbohydrate & lipid chains to proteins--marking them for export to final destinations—looks like a stack of pancakes.

  • Make ATP to allow cells to use energy in food

  • Are membrane tube s whose enzymes construct components of membranes & modify proteins

  • Are membrane sacs used for storage

  • Synthesize proteins following gene instructions

  • Are membrane sacs filled with digestive enzymes used to break down food to smaller particles or to recycle worn out organelles.


7.2 #21 Lysosomes:

30

  • Use light energy to make carbohydrates

  • Attach carbohydrate & lipid chains to proteins--marking them for export to the cell membrane—looks like a stack of pancakes.

  • Make ATP to allow cells to use energy in food

  • Are membrane tube s whose enzymes construct components of membranes & modify proteins

  • Are membrane sacs used for storage

  • Synthesize proteins following gene instructions

  • Are membrane sacs filled with digestive enzymes used to break down food to smaller particles or to recycle worn out organelles.


7.2 #22 Vacuoles:

30

  • Use light energy to make carbohydrates

  • Attach carbohydrate & lipid chains to proteins--marking them for export to the cell membrane—looks like a stack of pancakes.

  • Make ATP to allow cells to use energy in food

  • Are membrane tube s whose enzymes construct components of membranes & modify proteins

  • Are membrane sacs used for storage

  • Synthesize proteins following gene instructions

  • Are membrane sacs filled with digestive enzymes used to break down food to smaller particles or to recycle worn out organelles.


7.2 #23 Chloroplasts:

30

  • Use light energy to make carbohydrates

  • Attach carbohydrate & lipid chains to proteins--marking them for export to final destinations—looks like a stack of pancakes.

  • Make ATP to allow cells to use energy in food

  • Are membrane tube s whose enzymes construct components of membranes & modify proteins

  • Are membrane sacs used for storage

  • Synthesize proteins following gene instructions

  • Are membrane sacs filled with digestive enzymes used to break down food to smaller particles or to recycle worn out organelles.


7.2 #24 Mitochondria:

20

  • Use light energy to make carbohydrates

  • Attach carbohydrate & lipid chains to proteins--marking them for export to final destinations—looks like a stack of pancakes.

  • Make ATP to allow cells to use energy in food

  • Are membrane tube s whose enzymes construct components of membranes & modify proteins

  • Are membrane sacs used for storage

  • Synthesize proteins following gene instructions

  • Are membrane sacs filled with digestive enzymes used to break down food to smaller particles or to recycle worn out organelles.


7.2 #25 What cells contain chloroplasts, organelles that carry out photosynthesis?

20

  • autotrophic bacteria

  • Plants & plant like protists

  • Animals & animal like protists

  • Fungi & fungal like protists


7.2 #26 True or False. Mitochondria & chloroplasts have the same function in cells.

15

  • true

  • false


7.2 #27 Check your drawing against this labeled diagram for a plant cell


7.2 #28 What two organelles contain theirown genetic information in the form of smallcircular DNA molecules called plasmids? This is evidence that prokaryotes were ancestors of eukaryotes during evolution.

15

  • Golgi, nucleoi

  • Mitochondria, chloroplasts (this is the answer)

  • RER, SER

  • Centrioles, flagella


7.2 #29 Endosymbiotic theory states thatthe ___________ & ___________ likely arose through evolution of ancient prokaryotes thatescaped digestion after being eatenby ancient animal-like bacteria.

30

  • Nuclei & nucleoli

  • RER, SER

  • Flagella, cilia

  • Chloroplasts, mitochondria


Cells are like factoriesanalogies

Cytoskeleton—supports structure & provides ramps for moving material like steel beams

Nucleus—control center due to the DNA—the main office

Ribosome—makes proteins using blueprints from DNA (like a machine in a factory)

Golgi/ER—modify proteins, like a customization shop

Chloroplasts—provide energy from sun, a solar power plant

Mitochondria—provide energy cell uses directly by breaking down glucose (like an oil burning furnace)


7.2 #33 If you order an automobile with special paint, it’s added in the factory’scustomization department. What cell organelles serve this customizationfunction for proteins?

20

  • Nucleus, nucleolus

  • Mitochondria, vacuoles

  • RER, golgi


7.2 #36, 37 find organelles in plant and animal cells with these diagrams


Why do plants contain a large central vacuole that can fill with water?

20

  • To store water for use when the soil is dry

  • To support the weight of the plant (turgor pressure)

  • Both 1 & 3


What cell organelles store materials like water, lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and salts?

20

  • Central vacuoles

  • vesicles

  • golgi

  • mitochondria


What is the job of a mitochondrian?

20

  • Convert light energy to chemical energy

  • Store carbohydrates

  • Break down & recycle wastes

  • Convert chemical energy in food to chemical energy in a form useable by cells, ATP


Which cells contain mitochondria?

20

  • Prokaryotic cells

  • Animal cells

  • Plant cells

  • Fungal cells

  • Protist cells

  • Cells in all eukaryotic kingdoms


What cells contain chloroplasts?

20

  • Photosynthetic bacteria

  • Plants & plant like protists

  • Animals & animal like protists

  • Fungi & fungal like protists


7.1, 1. What structures make upevery living thing?

  • tissues

  • organs

  • Cells

  • Organ systems


7.1,2. In the 1600’s Leeuwenhoek used his microscope to see:

  • Little creatures in pond water

  • bacteria

  • Organelles

  • viruses


7.13 Hooke observed cork comprised of the cell walls of plant cells that remain after the cells have died. He saw:

  • Empty microscopic compartments that reminded him of monks tiny sleeping rooms, called cells.

  • Complex, thick walled areas that reminded him of rooms in a jail, called cells.


7.14 and 5Scientist Schleiden concluded all plants are made of cells, whereas Schwann concluded all animals are made of cells.

  • True

  • False


7.16Virchow concluded that human cells arise by mitosis, but that bacteria and fungus cells arise by spontaneous generation.

  • True

  • False


7.1, #7After many scientists observed cells in every examined organism, cell theory developed:

Cells are the basic units of organisms.

e.g., Humans contain nearly 100 trillion cells

All organisms are made from cells, no matter how complex the organism.

specialized cellstissuesorgansorgansystemsorganism

humans contain

220 types of specialized

cells

Cells arise due to division of other similar cells.


Cells carry out all of the functions that your body carries out, at a simpler level.

  • Exchange gases

  • Obtain nutrients & water & remove wastes

  • Move

  • Respond & communicate

  • Transport

    Materials in/out &

    throughout

  • Self-defense

  • Reproduction


Our bodies use organs & organ systems for these functions, but cells use organelles.

7.1#11

Organelles: Little Organs

Specialized parts of cells that carry out particular functions for the cell.


7.1 8. Which organelle that is a rigid outer coating on some but not all cells that protects cells from bursting?

  • Cell membrane

  • Cell wall

  • Nucleus

  • cytoplasm


7.1 8. Which organelle that is a membrane bound compartment that holds & protects the genetic information (DNA) of some but not all cells?

  • Cell membrane

  • Cell wall

  • Nucleus

  • cytoplasm


7.1 8. Which organelle covers the surface of every cell; it’s thin & flexible & forms the boundary of every cell?

  • Cell membrane

  • Cell wall

  • Nucleus

  • cytoplasm


7.1 8. Which structure is a gel-like substance that fills every cell and in which every cell’s organelles float?

  • Cell membrane

  • Cell wall

  • Nucleus

  • cytoplasm


Two main classes of cells exist: prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

These groups are defined by types of organelles present in cells

Prokaryotes—cells classified into the two kingdoms of bacteria

Eukaryotes—cells of organisms classified into all the other kingdoms

protists

fungi

plants

animals


7.19 & 10Prokaryotic cells

  • simpler, smaller cells (diameter< 5 µm)

  • DNA not contained in nuclei

  • no internal membrane bound organelles (internal compartments)

  • unicellular notmulticellular

  • no specialized cells

  • They do have ribosomes,

    cytoskeleton, cytoplasm,

    cell membranes, & DNA

    They do grow & reproduce.


7.112Eukaryotic cells

  • larger cells than prokaryotes,

  • more complex cells with membrane bound organelles,

  • membrane bound nucleus around its DNA,

  • all eukaryotes EXCEPT protists & a few fungi called yeasts are multicellular –protists & yeasts are unicellular, microscopic organisms.

  • All eukaryotes except for protists have specialized (differentiated) cells


Note similarities & differences between a prokaryote & a one-celled eukaryote. No nucleus or membrane bound organelles in the simpler prokaryote (which should be shown much smaller)


How does a nucleus look?Human red blood cells lack a nucleus. Frog red blood cells have a nucleus. Note the appearance of a nucleus.


Eukaryotic Plant, Animal, & Fungal Cells


Microscopic differences in their cells underlie the macroscopic differences between organisms of different kingdoms.

Plants—

Photosynthetic because their cells have organelles called chloroplasts; nonmotile because their cells are encased in rigid cell walls

Animals—

Heterotrophs (nonphotosynthetic) because their cells have no chloroplasts; mobile because their cells lack cell walls

Fungi—

Heterotrophs (no chloroplasts) and nonmotile (have cell walls)


Complex organisms like humans contain many different types of specialized cells.

Cells within the same multicellular organisms differ in amounts of each organelle, shapes, and molecules made.

This allows complex bodies to form, having specialized cells which carry the burden for particular operations of the entire body.

The specialized cells are cooperative and interdependent.

There are 220 types of specialized cells in a human body.

adipocytes(store fat),

neurons (receive & send information),

muscles (expand and contract to pull bones),

red blood cells (carry oxygen to the other cells) etc.


“form follows function” : The physical characteristics of the cell allow it to do its specialized job.

Long processes of neurons allow them to send information to other cells.

Adipocytes have large Photosynthtic leaf

vacuoles (storage cells contain many

compartments)that chloroplasts.

hold oil. Other parts of

cells are compressed


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