Chapter 7: Cell Structure and function. 7.1 Life is cellular. Cells: Tiny units that comprise all organisms. Microscopic (too small to see by eye) Less than 100 µm in diameter (0.00010 m or 0.1mm). 7.2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure. What are the major cell structures?
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7.1 Life is cellular
Microscopic (too small to see by eye)
Less than 100 µm in diameter (0.00010 m or 0.1mm)
What are the major cell structures?
What are their functions?
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7.1 #11 In the human body, organs perform specialized jobs. For example, the heart transports blood. In cells, tiny ___________ carry out specialized jobs.
Prokaryotes have no membrane bound organelles, including nuclei, in their cells. Eukaryote cells contain membrane bound organelles in the cells
Naked DNA DNA in membrane bound nucleus
Cytoplasm cytoplasm (cytosol)
Plasma membrane plasma membrane
Cell wall (some) Cell wall (some protists, all plants, & fungi)
Flagella & cilia (some) flagella & cilia (some)
All: golgi, smooth & rough endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, vacuoles, lysosomes or peroxisomes, mitochondria some: chloroplasts
Animals and plants are always multicellular with specialized cells. Most protists are unicellular organisms, although some are colonial (cells are clumped together but do not depend on each other or do specialized jobs)
Cells in a leaf cells in gut
Yeasts, molds (fungi) mushroom protists
Note these drawings of animal and plant cells. Which does NOT have a cell wall outside it’s plasma membrane? Fungi also have cell walls; so do some protists and some bacteria. Cells walls are made of cellulose in plants, chitin in fungi, peptidoglycan in eubacteria. Cell walls extra support & extra protection for cells.
7.2 #2 NOT have a cell wall outside it’s plasma membrane? Cell walls protect cells from bursting and provide them support against pressure (so they don’t get crushed). Which kingdom (the only one) NEVER has cell walls?
7.2 #14 The structure composed of a network ___________ surrounding the nucleus.of protein filaments whose job is supporting the cell’s shape, allowing cell movement, &moving organelles inside the cell is the:
7.2 #28 What two organelles contain their for a plant cellown genetic information in the form of smallcircular DNA molecules called plasmids? This is evidence that prokaryotes were ancestors of eukaryotes during evolution.
7.2 #29 Endosymbiotic theory states that for a plant cellthe ___________ & ___________ likely arose through evolution of ancient prokaryotes thatescaped digestion after being eatenby ancient animal-like bacteria.
Cytoskeleton—supports structure & provides ramps for moving material like steel beams
Nucleus—control center due to the DNA—the main office
Ribosome—makes proteins using blueprints from DNA (like a machine in a factory)
Golgi/ER—modify proteins, like a customization shop
Chloroplasts—provide energy from sun, a solar power plant
Mitochondria—provide energy cell uses directly by breaking down glucose (like an oil burning furnace)
7.2 #33 If you order an automobile for a plant cellwith special paint, it’s added in the factory’scustomization department. What cell organelles serve this customizationfunction for proteins?
Cells are the basic units of organisms.
e.g., Humans contain nearly 100 trillion cells
All organisms are made from cells, no matter how complex the organism.
220 types of specialized
Cells arise due to division of other similar cells.
Materials in/out &
Organelles: Little Organs
Specialized parts of cells that carry out particular functions for the cell.
7.1 but cells use organelles.8. Which organelle that is a membrane bound compartment that holds & protects the genetic information (DNA) of some but not all cells?
These groups are defined by types of organelles present in cells
Prokaryotes—cells classified into the two kingdoms of bacteria
Eukaryotes—cells of organisms classified into all the other kingdoms
cell membranes, & DNA
They do grow & reproduce.
Note similarities & differences between a prokaryote & a one-celled eukaryote. No nucleus or membrane bound organelles in the simpler prokaryote (which should be shown much smaller)
Photosynthetic because their cells have organelles called chloroplasts; nonmotile because their cells are encased in rigid cell walls
Heterotrophs (nonphotosynthetic) because their cells have no chloroplasts; mobile because their cells lack cell walls
Heterotrophs (no chloroplasts) and nonmotile (have cell walls)
Cells within the same multicellular organisms differ in amounts of each organelle, shapes, and molecules made.
This allows complex bodies to form, having specialized cells which carry the burden for particular operations of the entire body.
The specialized cells are cooperative and interdependent.
There are 220 types of specialized cells in a human body.
neurons (receive & send information),
muscles (expand and contract to pull bones),
red blood cells (carry oxygen to the other cells) etc.
Long processes of neurons allow them to send information to other cells.
Adipocytes have large Photosynthtic leaf
vacuoles (storage cells contain many
hold oil. Other parts of
cells are compressed