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Peter Mitchell: Diffusion is the answer!

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Peter Mitchell: Diffusion is the answer!. Paul Boyer: I think it actually twists!. Masasuke Yoshida “check this out.”. Masasuke Yoshida “check this out.”. Masasuke Yoshida “check this out.”. Which of the following enzymes work most effectively at a very low pH?. Salivary amylase Trypsin

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which of the following enzymes work most effectively at a very low ph
Which of the following enzymes work most effectively at a very low pH?
  • Salivary amylase
  • Trypsin
  • Pepsin
  • Pancreatic amylase
  • Pancreatic lipase
which of the following organs is incorrectly paired with its function
Which of the following organs is incorrectly paired with its function?
  • Stomach –protein digestion
  • Oral cavity -starch digestion
  • Large intestine –bile production
  • Small intestine –nutrient absorption
  • Pancreas –enzyme production
in zero gravity environment of space how does food swallowed by an astronaut reach her stomach
In zero gravity environment of space, how does food swallowed by an astronaut reach her stomach?
  • Swallowing hard
  • Running around wheel creates -> artificial gravity
  • Involuntary muscle contractions
  • IV administration of nutrients
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1. MouthMechanical and chemical processing (chewing reduces size of food; saliva digests carbohydrates)

Salivary glands Secretes enzymes that digest carbohydrates

Liver Secretes molecules required for digestion of fats

2. Esophagus Transports food

3. StomachMechanical and chemical processing (digestion of proteins)

4. Small intestine Chemical processing and absorption (digestion of proteins, fats, carbohydrates; absorption of nutrients and water)

Gall bladder Stores secretions from liver; empties into small intestine

Pancreas Secretes enzymes and other materials into small intestine

5. Large intestineWater absorption and feces formation

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Stomach

End of esophagus

Sphincter seals off

stomach from esophagus

Sphincter seals off

stomach from small

intestine

Layers

of muscle

Beginning of

small intestine

Lumen

(interior)

slide14

Stomach lining

Canal empties to lumen

Parietal cells

(secrete HCl)

Chief cells

(secrete pepsinogen)

slide15

Secretion of HCI by parietal cells

CA

CO2 + H2O

H2CO3

Canal empties

to lumen

Parietal cell

slide16

Secretion of HCI by parietal cells

CO2 + H2O

H2CO3

H+

H+

HCO3–

ATP

Canal empties

to lumen

Parietal cell

slide17

Secretion of HCI by parietal cells

HCl

to lumen

CO2 + H2O

H2CO3

To blood

H+

H+

HCO3–

HCO3–

ATP

Cl–

Cl–

Cl–

Cl–

Chloride channel

From blood

Canal empties

to lumen

Parietal cell

slide18

Stomach -Enzymes, Hormones, other?

  • Enzymes: pepsinogen (inactive)-> pepsin (protease) from chief cells
  • Other: HCl -> denature ECM bacteria, from parietal cells, activator of pepsin
  • Other: Mucins/mucus protective from goblet or mucus cells
  • Other: mechanical churning -> acid chyme
  • Hormones: Gastrin (+), CCK/secretin (-), enterogastrone (-- pyloric sphinct)
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Enzymes, Hormones, other?

  • Your turn

enzymes? -> Protocol Expert (PE)

hormones? -> Data Recorder (DR)

other -> Laboratory Technician (LT)

poem -> (if have one) Primary Investigator (PI)

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