Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems
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Unit 7 Common Diseases and Conditions of Body Systems. Nurse Aide I Course. Common Diseases and Conditions of Body Systems. This unit reviews the structure and function of the body and its systems.

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Unit 7 Common Diseases and Conditions of Body Systems

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Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Unit 7Common Diseases and Conditions of Body Systems

Nurse Aide I Course

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common diseases and conditions of body systems

Common Diseases and Conditions of Body Systems

This unit reviews the structure and function of the body and its systems.

It presents common disorders of each system and lists the normal changes that occur with the aging process.

It includes signs and symptoms which should be reported.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common diseases and conditions of body systems continued

Common Diseases and Conditions of Body Systems(continued)

A basic knowledge of normal anatomy and physiology will help the nurse aide to understand the signs and symptoms of disease, the reasons for the care given, and the purposes of procedures that are carried out for the resident’s comfort, healing and recovery.

In-depth information is not provided.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common diseases and conditions of body systems continued1

Common Diseases and Conditions of Body Systems(continued)

It is intended that upon completion of the unit, the student will have rudimentary knowledge of the body systems sufficient to enhance resident care.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Body

Systems

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objectives

7.0Discuss the makeup of the male and female body.

7.1Describe the relationship between cells, tissues, organs, and systems of the body.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Body systems cells

Body SystemsCells

  • Building blocks of body 

  • Microscopic in size 

  • Cells combine to form tissue

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Body systems

Body Systems

Tissues

  • Cells organized into tissue to carry on particular activities (connect, support, absorb, secrete, protect, direct, coordinate, allow movement) 

  • Groups of tissues form organs

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.1.1 List the organs of the body.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Body systems organs

Body SystemsOrgans

  • Made up of several types of tissues

  • Carry on special functions

  • Some organs in pairs - kidneys and lungs

  • Some organs single – heart, brain, liver, stomach, intestines, bladder

  • Organs combine to form systems

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.1.2Identify the systems of the body.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Systems

Systems

A system is a group of organs that work together.

Body Systems

  • Skeletal

  • Muscular

  • Circulatory

  • Respiratory

  • Digestive

  • Urinary

  • Endocrine

  • Nervous

  • Reproductive

  • Integumentary

  • Sensory

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Body systems1

Body Systems

Systems combine to form the human body.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

The

Skeletal

System

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.2Identify functions of the skeletal system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


The skeletal system

Comprises the bony framework of the body

Has 206 bones

The Skeletal System

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


The skeletal system continued

FUNCTIONS:

Support

Protect

Movement

Mineral storage

Blood cell production

The Skeletal System(continued)

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The skeletal system continued1

JOINTS - point where bones meet:

Immovable – cranium

Slightly movable - vertebral discs

Freely movable - shoulder, knee, wrist

The Skeletal System(continued)

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


The skeletal system continued2

The Skeletal System(continued)

  • COMPOSITION OF JOINTS:

  • Ligament - connects bone to bone

  • Tendon - connects muscle to bone

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The skeletal system continued3

The Skeletal System(continued)

  • COMPOSITION OF JOINTS:

  • Bursa - fluid filled sac that allows bones to move easily over others

  • Cartilage – connective tissue that cushions the joint at end of bones and between bones

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.2.1Discuss common disorders of the skeletal system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common disorders of skeletal system

Common Disorders of Skeletal System

  • Osteoporosis - porous bone that breaks easily

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Common disorders of skeletal system continued

Common Disorders of Skeletal System(continued)

  • Fracture - break in bone

    • simple - bone broken, skin intact

    • compound - bone broken, penetrates skin

    • comminuted - bone broken, fragments in tissue

    • greenstick - incomplete break

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Common disorders of skeletal system continued1

Common Disorders of Skeletal System(continued)

  • Arthritis - inflammation of the joints

    • osteoarthritis due to stress on joints

      • usually affects weight bearing joints: knees, hips, vertebrae and fingers

      • aching, stiffness, limited motion

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common disorders of skeletal system continued2

rheumatoid arthritis - systemic disease

causes inflammation, deformity and crippling

joints painful, stiff, swollen, red and warm

Arthritis - inflammation of the joints

Common Disorders of Skeletal System(continued)

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common disorders of skeletal system continued3

Common Disorders of Skeletal System(continued)

  • Amputation – removal of all or part of limb

  • Sprain - stretched or torn ligaments or tendons

  • Bursitis - inflammation of bursa causing pain on movement

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Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.2.2Discuss changes that take place in the skeletal system due to aging.

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Skeletal system changes due to aging

Skeletal System Changes Due To Aging

  • Bones more porous or brittle

  • Joints less flexible

  • Postural changes

  • Awkward walking patterns

  • Slowed recovery from position changes and sudden movements

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.2.3List observations/situations relating to skeletal system.

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Observations situations related to skeletal system

Observations/Situations Related to Skeletal System

  • Slow and unsteady body movement

  • Difficulty holding objects

  • Complaint of pain in joints

  • Swelling, redness and warmth in joints

  • Inability to move joints

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Observations situations related to skeletal system continued

Observations/Situations Related to Skeletal System(continued)

  • Complaint of pain with movement

  • Complaint of neck or head pain

  • Resident who has fallen (stay with resident, call for help, do not move resident or allow resident to move)

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Observations situations related to skeletal system continued1

Observations/Situations Related to Skeletal System(continued)

  • Resident with cast on arm or leg

    • complaint of pain in limb

    • swelling of fingers or toes

    • pale skin of fingers or toes

    • cyanosis and coolness of fingers or toes

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Observations situations related to skeletal system continued2

Observations/Situations Related to Skeletal System(continued)

  • Resident with cast on arm or leg

    • odor or drainage from cast

    • inability to move toes or fingers

    • complaint of numbness of fingers or toes

    • drainage from cast

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

The

Muscular

System

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.3Identify functions of muscles.

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The muscular system

The Muscular System

  • Provides body with ability to move

  • Over 650 different muscles that comprise nearly half the body weight

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The muscular system continued

The Muscular System(continued)

  • Functions of muscles

    • Allow movement

    • Help body stay erect – posture

    • Produce most of body’s heat

    • Give body form

    • Provide movement of internal organs

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Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.3.1Discuss common disorders of the muscular system.

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Common disorders of muscular system

Common Disorders of Muscular System

  • Paralysis - loss of voluntary movement due to neurological damage such as stroke or trauma

  • Multiple sclerosis – weakness of muscles due to loss of covering on nerves that control them

  • Atrophy – muscle mass decreases in size

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Common disorders of muscular system continued

Common Disorders of Muscular System(continued)

  • Contracture - permanent shortening of muscle; joints become ankylosed (frozen)

  • Muscle strain – damage caused by trauma

  • Myalgia - muscle pain

  • Torn muscle - tear caused by trauma

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Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.3.2Discuss changes in the muscular system due to aging.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Changes in muscular system due to aging

Changes in Muscular System Due to Aging

  • Poorer response to stimuli

  • Pain when moving, therefore muscles not used as often

  • Less active

  • Muscle strength and bulk loss

  • Slower muscle - nerve interaction

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.3.3List observations relating to the muscular system.

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Observations of muscular system to report

Observations of Muscular System to Report

  • Difficulty holding or lifting objects

  • Inability to move a body part

  • Difficulty walking

  • Loss of muscle strength and tone

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Observations of muscular system to report continued

Observations of Muscular System to Report(continued)

  • Edema of tissue or joint

  • Complaint of muscle pain

  • Generalized weakness and fatigue

  • Slow, unsteady body movement

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

The

Circulatory

System

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.4Identify functions of the circulatory system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Circulatory system

Circulatory System

  • Circulation is continuous movement of blood throughout body

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Circulatory system continued

Circulatory System(continued)

  • Functions of circulatory system

    • Arteries carry blood with oxygen and nutrients away from heart and to cells

    • Veins carry waste products away from cells and to heart

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Blood

Blood

  • Adult has 5 to 6 quarts (liters)

  • Consists of

    • water - 90% (plasma)

    • blood cells

    • carbon dioxide and oxygen

    • nutrients, hormones and enzymes

    • waste products

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Blood continued

Blood(continued)

  • Types of blood cells 

    • Red blood cells - erythrocytes 

      • carry oxygen from blood to cells 

    • White blood cells - leukocytes 

      • fight infection 

    • Platelets - thrombocytes 

      • required for clotting to stop bleeding 

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Blood vessels

Blood Vessels

  • Arteries - carry blood away from heart

  • Veins – carry blood to heart

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Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.4.1Discuss how the blood vessels relate to the pulse and blood pressure.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Heart

  • Tissue (three layers)

    • endocardium - smooth, inner layer

    • myocardium – thick, muscular middle layer

    • pericardium – double-walled membrane that covers outside of heart

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Heart chambers

Heart divided into right and left side

Atria – upper chambers – receive blood

Heart Chambers

  • Ventricles – lower chambers – pump blood to lungs and body

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Heart chambers1

Four chambers

right atrium (1) - receives blood from two large veins:

superior vena cava

inferior vena cava

right ventricle (2) - receives blood from right atrium and pumps it to lungs through pulmonary artery

1

2

Heart Chambers

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Heart chambers continued

3

4

Heart Chambers(continued)

  • Four chambers

    • left atrium (3) - receives oxygenated blood from left and right pulmonary veins

    • left ventricle (4) - pumps blood to aorta, which delivers blood to all body parts (except lungs)

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Heart valves

Valves

Heart Valves

  • Located at entrance and exit of each ventricle

  • Four heart valves

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Heartbeat

  • Systole - contraction of heart muscle

  • Diastole - relaxation of heart muscle

  • Blood pressure – highest and lowest pressure against walls of blood vessels as heart contracts and relaxes

  • Pulse - expansion and contraction of artery

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.4.2Discuss common disorders of the circulatory system.

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Common disorders of the circulatory system

Common Disorders of the Circulatory System

  • Arteriosclerosis - walls of arteries become thick and harden

  • Hypertension - high blood pressure 

  • Peripheral vascular disease - decrease in flow of blood to extremities and brain 

  • Angina pectoris - chest pain 

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common disorders of the circulatory system continued

Common Disorders of the Circulatory System(continued)

  • Varicose veins - enlarged, twisted veins usually in legs 

  • Congestive heart failure - circulatory congestion caused by weak pumping of heart muscle

  • Myocardial infarction (MI) - heart attack due to blockage in coronary arteries

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Common disorders of the circulatory system continued1

Common Disorders of the Circulatory System(continued)

  • Anemia – low red blood cell counts

  • Thrombus – blood clot

  • Phlebitis – inflammation of vein

  • Atherosclerosis - fatty deposits on walls of arteries that reduce blood flow 

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Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.4.3Discuss changes that occur in the circulatory system with aging.

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Changes of the circulatory system due to aging

Changes of the Circulatory System Due To Aging

  • Heart muscle less efficient

  • Blood pumped with less force

  • Arteries lose elasticity and become narrow

  • Blood pressure increases

  • Blood chemistry less efficient

  • Capillaries become more fragile

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.4.3List observations relating to the circulatory system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Observations of the circulatory system

Observations of the Circulatory System

  • Changes in pulse rate and blood pressure

  • Changes in skin color

  • Changes in skin temperature – coldness

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Observations of the circulatory system continued

Observations of the Circulatory System(continued)

  • Complaint of dizziness and headaches

  • Complaint of pain in chest and/or indigestion

  • Edema in feet and legs

  • Shortness of breath

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Observations of the circulatory system continued1

Observations of the Circulatory System(continued)

  • Sweating

  • Blue color to lips and/or nail beds

  • Complaint of tingling sensations

  • Memory lapses

  • Lack of energy

  • Irregular respirations

  • Anxiety

  • Staring and lack of responsiveness

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

The

Respiratory

System

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.5Identify the function and structure of the respiratory system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


The respiratory system

The Respiratory System

  • Respiration means to breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide

  • Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide necessary for life

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The respiratory system continued

The Respiratory System(continued)

  • Process

    • External respiration - oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanged between lungs and blood

    • Internal respiration - oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanged between blood stream and cells

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


The respiratory system structure

Oral cavity – mouth

Pharynx – throat

Larynx - voice box

Trachea – windpipe

Bronchi - right and left

Bronchioles - smallest branches of bronchi

Alveoli - air sacs covered with capillaries

The Respiratory SystemStructure

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The respiratory system structure continued

Nose - lined with mucous membrane

air filtered by cilia

mucous membrane warms and moistens air

The Respiratory SystemStructure(continued)

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The respiratory system structure continued1

The Respiratory SystemStructure(continued)

  • Lungs

    • right - 3 lobes

    • left - 2 lobes

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The respiratory system structure continued2

The Respiratory SystemStructure(continued)

  • Pleura – membrane that encloses lungs

  • Diaphragm - muscle that separates the chest and abdomen

    • contraction - draws air into lungs

    • relaxation - forces air out of lungs

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.5.1Review common disorders of the respiratory system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common disorders of respiratory system

Common Disorders of Respiratory System

  • URI – Upper Respiratory Infection - infection of nose, throat, larynx, trachea

  • Pneumonia - inflammation or infection of the lungs

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Common disorders of respiratory system continued

Common Disorders of Respiratory System(continued)

  • Emphysema (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease – COPD) – alveoli become stretched and stiff preventing adequate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

  • Asthma – spasms of bronchial tube walls causing narrowing of air passages usually due to allergies

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common disorders of respiratory system continued1

Common Disorders of Respiratory System(continued)

  • Allergy – reaction to substances that leads to slight or severe response by body.

  • Influenza – highly contagious URI

  • Pleurisy – inflammation of the pleura surrounding the lungs

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Common disorders of respiratory system continued2

Common Disorders of Respiratory System(continued)

  • Bronchitis - inflammation of the bronchi

  • Lung cancer - malignant tumors in the lungs that destroy tissue

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Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.5.2Discuss changes in the respiratory system due to aging.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Changes in respiratory system due to aging

Changes in Respiratory System Due To Aging

  • Lung tissue becomes less elastic

  • Respiratory muscles weaken

  • Number of alveoli decrease

  • Respirations increase

  • Voice pitched higher and weaker due to changes in larynx

  • Chest wall and structures become more rigid

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Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.5.3List observations relating to the respiratory system.

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Observations of respiratory system

Rate and rhythm of respirations

Respiratory secretions – character

Character of cough

Changes in skin color - pale or bluish gray

Temperature changes

Difficulty breathing

Observations Of Respiratory System

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Observations of respiratory system continued

Observations Of Respiratory System(continued)

  • Color of sputum

  • Complaint of pain in chest, back, sides

  • Shortness of breath

  • Noisy respirations

  • Sneezing

  • Gasping for breath

  • Anxiety

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Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

The

Digestive

System

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.6Identify functions and structures of the digestive system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Digestive system

Digestive System

  • Also called the gastrointestinal system

  • Extends from mouth to anus

  • Functions

    • Digestion

    • Absorption

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Digestive system structures

Digestive SystemStructures

  • Mouth

  • Stomach – holds food until digestive juices chemically break it down into liquid chyme

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Digestive system structures1

Intestines 

small intestine 

about 20 ft. long 

food digestion completed and nutrients absorbed into bloodstream

Digestive SystemStructures

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Digestive system structures continued

Intestines 

large intestine

6 ft. long

absorbs water, mineral salts and vitamins

secretes mucus to aid in movement of feces

has ability to add or remove water from feces

Digestive SystemStructures(continued)

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Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.2Identify functions of the skeletal system.

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Digestive system1

Digestive System

  • Accessory Organs

    • Liver – produces bile for breakdown of fats

    • Gallbladder – stores bile produced by liver

    • Pancreas - manufactures insulin and digestive enzymes

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Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.6.1Discuss common disorders of the digestive system.

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Common disorders of the digestive system

Common Disorders Of The Digestive System

  • Ulcer - a lesion or erosion of the lining of the stomach or small intestine

  • Hepatitis – inflammation of the liver

  • Cirrhosis – chronic disease of liver where scar tissue replaces liver tissue

  • Cholelithiasis - stones in the gallbladder

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Common disorders of the digestive system continued

Common Disorders Of The Digestive System(continued)

  • Pancreatitis – inflammation of the pancreas

  • Cholecystitis – inflammation of the gallbladder

  • Colitis – inflammatory disease of the colon

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Common disorders of the digestive system continued1

Common Disorders Of The Digestive System(continued)

  • Hemorrhoids - enlarged veins in anal area

  • Constipation - difficulty in expelling fecal material; incomplete or infrequent bowel movements

  • Diarrhea – watery bowel movements

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Common disorders of the digestive system continued2

Common Disorders Of The Digestive System(continued)

  • Gastritis – inflammation of the stomach lining

  • Enteritis – inflammation of the intestines

  • Gastroenteritis - inflammation of the stomach lining and intestines

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Common disorders of the digestive system continued3

Common Disorders Of The Digestive System(continued)

  • Cancer - may occur anywhere along digestive tract

  • Hernia – protrusion of organ through wall of cavity where it is normally contained

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Common disorders of the digestive system continued4

Common Disorders Of The Digestive System(continued)

  • Diverticulosis - chronic disease in which many diverticula (small blind pouches) form in the lining and wall of the colon

  • Diverticulitis – inflammation of diverticula

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Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.6.2Discuss changes in the digestive system due to aging.

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Changes in digestive system due to aging

Changes In Digestive System Due To Aging

  • Decreased number of taste buds

  • Slowing of peristalsis causing constipation

  • Slower absorption of nutrients

  • Difficulty chewing and swallowing

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Changes in digestive system due to aging continued

Changes In Digestive System Due To Aging(continued)

  • Loss of bowel muscle tone

  • Decrease in amount of digestive enzymes and saliva production

  • Decreased appetite

  • Loss of teeth

  • Altered taste and smell

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Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.6.3List observations relating to the digestive system.

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Observations of the digestive system

Observations Of The Digestive System

  • Stool color and consistency

  • Abdomen – flat or distended

  • Date and time of last bowel movement

  • Nausea and vomiting

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Observations of the digestive system1

Observations Of The Digestive System

  • Blood in emesis or stool

  • Complaint of pain in stomach

  • Difficulty swallowing

  • Poor appetite

  • Constipation and diarrhea

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Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

The

Urinary

System

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.7Identify functions and structure of the urinary system.

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Urinary system

Urinary System

  • Also known as excretory system

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Urinary system continued

Urinary System(continued)

  • Functions

    • Filter waste products from blood

    • Produce urine

    • Aid in maintenance of water balance

    • Regulate acid-base balance of body

    • Store urine until passed from body

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Urinary system structure

Urinary SystemStructure

  • Kidneys:

    • purplish brown, bean-shaped organs

    • located at back of abdominal cavity

    • weight 4-6 ounces each

    • filter waste products from blood

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Urinary system structure continued

Urinary SystemStructure(continued)

  • Ureters - tubes that carry urine from kidneys to bladder

  • Urinary bladder - muscular sac that expands to hold urine received from the kidney

  • Urethra - tube extending from bladder to outside of body

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Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.7.1Describe the characteristics of normal urine.

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Urinary system1

Urinary System

  • Characteristics of normal urine

    • Pale yellow to amber

    • Clear

    • Acidic

    • Quantity 1000-1500 ml. per day

    • pH 5.0 – 7.0

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Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.7.2Discuss common disorders of the urinary system.

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Common disorders of urinary system

Common Disorders of Urinary System

  • Nephritis - inflammation of kidney due to infection

  • Cystitis - inflammation of urinary bladder due to infection

  • Calculi – kidney or bladder stones

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Common disorders of urinary system continued

Common Disorders of Urinary System(continued)

  • Uremia - accumulation of urea in blood due to kidney disease

  • Urethritis - inflammation of the urethra

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Common disorders of urinary system continued1

Common Disorders of Urinary System(continued)

  • Kidney failure – decreased ability of kidney to filter waste products from the blood

  • Urinary incontinence -inability to control urination

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Common disorders of urinary system continued2

Common Disorders of Urinary System(continued)

  • UTI - Urinary Tract Infection

  • Retention - inability to completely empty the bladder

  • Hematuria - blood in the urine

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Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.7.3Discuss changes of the urinary system due to aging.

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Changes in urinary system due to aging

Changes In Urinary System Due to Aging

  • Decreased kidney size

  • Decreased elasticity of ureters, bladder and urethra

  • Decreased muscle tone

  • Diminished blood flow to kidneys

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Changes in urinary system due to aging continued

Changes In Urinary System Due to Aging(continued)

  • Decreased ability of kidneys to concentrate urine

  • Difficulty emptying urinary bladder

  • Enlarged prostate in males which presses on urethra

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.7.4List observations relating to the urinary system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Observations of urinary system

Observations of Urinary System

  • Elevated temperature

  • Sugar and/or acetone in urine

  • Urine color other than clear, pale yellow

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Observations of urinary system continued

Observations of Urinary System(continued)

  • Complaint of burning on urination

  • Incontinence

  • Polyuria - excessive amounts of urine per voiding

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Observations of urinary system continued1

Observations of Urinary System(continued)

  • Hematuria - blood in urine

  • Nocturia – excessive urination at night

  • Urine having strong odor or cloudy appearance

  • Voiding small amounts of urine frequently

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

The

Endrocrine

System

(Glands)

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.8Identify functions of the endocrine system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Endocrine system glands

Endocrine System (Glands)

  • Endocrine glands secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the blood stream

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Endocrine system glands1

Endocrine System (Glands)

  • Functions of endocrine system

    • secretes hormones that regulate growth and development

    • secretes hormones that regulate metabolism and reproduction

    • secretes hormones that regulate the immune response

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.8.1Discuss the most common disorder of the endocrine system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus – the most common disorder of the endocrine system

80% of diabetics over 40 years of age

incidence increases as people age

5% of people over age 65 require treatment

Diabetes Mellitus

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Diabetes mellitus continued

Diabetes mellitus – the most common disorder of the endocrine system

USA has highest morbidity and mortality rates

disorder of carbohydrate metabolism with decreased insulin production from pancreas

Diabetes Mellitus(continued)

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Diabetes mellitus continued1

Uncontrolled diabetes leads to damage to eyes, kidneys, circulation

Diabetes characterized by consistent, elevated blood glucose levels requiring oral medication to stimulate pancreas or insulin injections

Diabetes Mellitus(continued)

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Diabetes mellitus1

Hypoglycemia

low blood sugar

Hyperglycemia

high blood sugar

Diabetes Mellitus

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.8.2Discuss the changes in the endocrine system due to aging.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Changes in the endocrine system due to aging

Changes In The Endocrine System Due To Aging

  • Decrease in thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and sex hormone secretions

  • Decreased glucose tolerance (Diabetes)

  • Multiple physical changes due to decrease of sex hormones

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.8.3List observations relating to endocrine system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Observation of the endocrine system

Irritability & restlessness

Nervousness

Confusion

Weight loss

Diaphoresis

Edema

Excessive thirst

Sweet, fruity odor to breath

Observation Of The Endocrine System

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Observation of the endocrine system continued

Complaint of headache

Drowsiness

Rapid, weak pulse

Low blood pressure

Nausea or vomiting

Flushed, dry, hot skin

Excessive urination

Observation Of The Endocrine System(continued)

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

The

Nervous

System

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objectives

7.9Identify functions of the two major parts of the nervous system.

7.9.1 Explain how damage to the nervous system differs from damage to other body systems.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Nervous system

Nervous System

  • Controls and organizes all body activities

  • Divided into two parts

    • Peripheral nervous system

    • Central nervous system

      • brain

      • spinal cord

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Nervous system continued

Nervous System(continued)

  • Basic unit of structure - neuron or nerve cell

    • Most complex cell in body

    • Does not reproduce; if destroyed, it is not replaced

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Nervous system continued1

Nervous system enables you to

Speak

Hear

Taste

See

Smell

Think

Respond/move

Learn

Remember

Nervous System(continued)

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Structure of nervous system

Structure of Nervous System

  • Central nervous system

    • brain

      • cerebrum

        • largest portion of brain

        • responsible for judgment, memory, association and discrimination

        • divided into left and right hemispheres

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Structure of nervous system continued

Structure of Nervous System(continued)

  • Central nervous system (continued)

    • brain

      • cerebellum - responsible for coordination of muscles, balance and posture, and muscle tone

      • thalamus - monitors sensory stimuli

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Structure of nervous system continued1

Structure of Nervous System(continued)

  • Central nervous system (continued)

    • brain

      • hypothalamus - controls the autonomic nervous system, the cardiovascular system, body temperature, appetite, water balance, the GI system, sleep, emotional state

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Structure of nervous system continued2

Structure of Nervous System(continued)

  • Central nervous system (continued)

    • brain

      • pons - responsible for reflex actions like chewing, and production of saliva

      • medulla oblongata - regulates heartbeat, respirations, swallowing, coughing, blood pressure

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Structure of nervous system continued3

Structure of Nervous System(continued)

  • Central nervous system (continued)

    • spinal cord

      • 18 inches long

      • extends from brain to small of back

      • carries messages to and from brain

      • relays messages to body through spinal nerves

      • handles reflexes

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Structure of nervous system continued4

Structure of Nervous System(continued)

  • Peripheral nervous system – nerves leaving the spinal cord and going throughout the body

    • digestion

    • secretion of glands

    • heart beat and breathing

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.9.2Discuss common disorders or conditions of the nervous system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common disorders or conditions of the nervous system

Common Disorders Or Conditions Of The Nervous System

  • CVA – Stroke or cerebrovascular accident - damage to part of brain due to blood clot or hemorrhage cutting off blood supply

  • Head or spinal cord injuries

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common disorders or conditions of the nervous system continued

Common Disorders Or Conditions Of The Nervous System(continued)

  • Dementia from nutritional deficiencies, exposure to toxic substances, reduced blood flow to brain or unknown causes

  • Alzheimer’s disease - common cause of organic disease

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common disorders or conditions of the nervous system continued1

Common Disorders Or Conditions Of The Nervous System(continued)

  • Parkinson’s disease – progressive nervous disease associated with destruction of brain cells

  • Multiple sclerosis - loss of covering around nerve fibers interfering with nerve impulses to and from brain

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.9.3Discuss changes in the nervous system due to aging.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Changes in the nervous system due to aging

Changes In The Nervous System Due To Aging

  • Loss of nerve/brain cells

  • Increase in reaction time

  • Changes in memory

  • Receptors become less sensitive, so require increased stimuli for response

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Changes in the nervous system due to aging continued

Changes In The Nervous System Due To Aging(continued)

  • Reduced sense of touch and sensitivity to pain

  • Reduced blood flow to brain

  • Forgetfulness

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.9.4List observations relating to the nervous system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Observations of the nervous system

Observations Of The Nervous System

  • Jerking motions

  • Speech changes

  • Complaint of numbness

  • Complaint of dizziness

  • Complaint of nausea

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Observations of the nervous system continued

Observations Of The Nervous System(continued)

  • Confusion

  • Complaint of loss of feeling on one side

  • Incontinence

  • Deranged thought processes

  • Tremors

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Observations of the nervous system continued1

Observations Of The Nervous System(continued)

  • Muscular rigidity

  • Complaint of visual disturbances or changes

  • Paralysis

  • Seizures

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

The

Sensory

Organs

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.10Identify functions of the sensory organs.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Sensory organs

Sensory Organs

  • Part of nervous system

  • Sensory neurons make one aware of changes in the environment

  • Changes known as stimuli

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Sensory organs continued

Sensory Organs(continued)

  • Functions of the sensory system

    • Vision

    • Hearing

    • Smell

    • Taste

    • Touch

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Sensory organs1

Sensory Organs

  • Specialized functions

    • Eye

      • sense of sight

      • receives images and sends to brain

    • Ear

      • sense of hearing

      • transmits sounds to brain

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Sensory organs continued1

Sensory Organs(continued)

  • Nose - (sense of smell) – allows recognition of odors and improves taste of food

  • Taste buds on tongue - (sense of taste) – allows recognition of sweet, sour, bitter, salty

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Sensory organs continued2

Sensory Organs(continued)

  • Skin - (sense of touch) – allows recognition of objects, pressure, heat, cold, pain, and pleasure

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.10.1Discuss common disorders of the sensory organs.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common disorders of the sensory organs

Common Disorders Of The Sensory Organs

  • Cataract - lens of eye loses its transparency

  • Glaucoma - increased pressure in the eye due to an excess of aqueous humor

  • Conjunctivitis - inflammation of the eyelid lining

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common disorders of the sensory organs continued

Common Disorders Of The Sensory Organs(continued)

  • Sty - tiny abscess at the base of an eyelash

  • Otitis media - infection of the middle ear

  • Deafness - partial or complete hearing loss

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.10.2Discuss changes in the sensory organs due to aging.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Changes in sensory organs due to aging

Changes In Sensory Organs Due to Aging

  • Lens in eye becomes thick and cloudy

  • Sclera becomes more yellow

  • Less light reaches inner eye

  • Hearing structures of ear become less moveable

  • Soft wax production decreases

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Changes in sensory organs due to aging continued

Changes In Sensory Organs Due to Aging(continued)

  • Progressive hearing loss of high-pitched sounds occurs

  • Peripheral vision and night vision decreases

  • Eye adjusts more slowly to changes in distance

  • Sense of smell decreases

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Changes in sensory organs due to aging continued1

Changes In Sensory Organs Due to Aging(continued)

  • Sense of taste (sweet and salty first) decreases

  • Accommodation to light and dark decreases

  • Sense of touch, heat, cold, pain and pressure awareness decreases

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.10.3List observations relating to the sensory system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Observations of the sensory organs

Observations Of The Sensory Organs

  • Sclera (white of eye) suddenly reddened or yellow

  • Lens of eye becomes cloudy

  • Complaint of pain in or around ear or eye

  • Red, swollen eye lid

  • Drainage from eyes

  • Complaint of difficulty seeing objects

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Observations of the sensory organs continued

Observations Of The Sensory Organs(continued)

  • Comment that rainbows apparent around lights

  • Drainage from ear canal

  • Complaint of feeling of fluid or noise in ear

  • Complaint of sudden flashes of light or loss of sight

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

The

Integumentary

System

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.11Identify functions of the integumentary system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


The integumentary system skin

The Integumentary System (Skin)

  • Skin is body’s largest organ

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


The integumentary system skin continued

The Integumentary System (Skin)(continued)

  • Functions

    • Protects body from injury and pathogens

    • Regulates body temperature

    • Eliminates waste through perspiration

    • Contains nerve endings for cold, heat, pain, pressure and pleasure

    • Stores fat and vitamins

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


The integumentary system skin continued1

The Integumentary System (Skin)(continued)

  • Hair and nails are appendages of skin

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.11.1Discuss common disorders of the skin.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common disorders of the integumentary system

Common Disorders Of The Integumentary System

  • Athletes foot - caused by a fungus, involves toes and soles of feet

  • Boils – caused by bacteria entering hair follicles or sebaceous glands

  • Eczema - red, itchy areas on the surface of skin

  • Skin cancer

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common disorders of the integumentary system continued

Common Disorders Of The Integumentary System(continued)

  • Dermatitis - inflammation of skin

  • Tears – due to fragile skin

  • Warts – viral infection of skin

  • Burns – first, second, or third degree, depending on amount of skin tissue destroyed

  • Bruising – due to fragile skin and/or effects of medications

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common disorders of the integumentary system continued1

Common Disorders Of The Integumentary System(continued)

  • Pressure sores - caused by poor circulation resulting from pressure that destroys skin and creates ulcer

  • Shingles - skin eruption due to viral infection

  • Gangrene - necrosis of tissue cells due to blockage of blood supply to an area, or blockage from disease or direct injury

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.11.2Discuss changes in the integumentary system due to aging.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Changes in the integumentary system due to aging

Changes In The Integumentary System Due To Aging

  • Compromised circulation

  • Less active glands

  • Drying, thinning and scaling of skin

  • Thickening of nails

  • Loss of fat and elasticity of skin

  • Loss of hair color and thinning of hair

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Changes in the integumentary system due to aging continued

Changes In The Integumentary System Due To Aging(continued)

  • Development of skin tags, moles and warts

  • Folds, lines and wrinkles in skin

  • Nails harden, become more brittle

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.11.3List observations relating to the integumentary system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Observations of the integumentary system to report

Observations Of The Integumentary System To Report

  • Breaks

  • Rash

  • Complaint of itching

  • Black and blue areas

  • Redness

  • Ulcers, sores or drainage

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

The

Reproductive

System

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.12Identify functions of the reproductive system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Reproductive system

Reproductive System

  • Organs have dual functions

    • Produce reproductive cells

    • Produce hormones responsible for sex characteristics

      • females - estrogen and progesterone

      • males - testosterone

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.12.1Discuss common disorders of the reproductive system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common disorders of the reproductive system

Common Disorders of the Reproductive System

  • Rectocele and cystocele – hernias

    • rectocele - weakening of wall between vagina and rectum

      • constipation results

      • hemorrhoids form

    • cystocele - weakening of wall between urethra and vagina

      • causes urinary incontinence

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common disorders of the reproductive system continued

Common Disorders of the Reproductive System(continued)

  • Tumors - benign and malignant tumors of uterus, ovaries and breasts

    • pap smear

    • self breast exams

    • biopsy

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Common disorders of the reproductive system continued1

Common Disorders of the Reproductive System(continued)

  • Sexually transmitted diseases

    • gonorrhea

    • syphilis

    • herpes

    • AIDS

  • Prostatic hypertrophy - enlargement of prostate gland

  • Vaginitis

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.12.2Discuss changes in the reproductive system due to aging.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Changes in reproductive system due to aging

Decreased size of testes

Decreased production of sperm

Delayed or less forceful ejaculation

Slower sexual response

Enlargement of prostate

Decreased sexual desire

Changes In Reproductive System Due To Aging

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Changes in reproductive system due to aging continued

Sagging breasts

Stopping of ovulation

Decreased vaginal secretions

Thinning of tissue of vaginal lining

Decreased sex hormone production

Loss of hair in vulva area

Changes In Reproductive System Due To Aging(continued)

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.12.3List observations relating to the reproductive system.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Observations of reproductive system

Observations of Reproductive System

  • Bleeding

  • Complaint of pain

  • Vaginal discharge

  • Complaint of itching

  • Lumps

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

CANCER:

Second Leading

Cause of Death

in U.S.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.13Define and discuss cancer.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Cancer

Cancer

  • Definition – abnormal growth of cells that can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of body

  • Cancer cells can originate in any body tissue

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Two main types of cancer

Carcinoma

skin

lining of hollow organs and passageways

Sarcoma

bone

muscle

lymph system

cartilage

Two Main Types Of Cancer

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.13.1List two types of tumors and explain how they are different.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Tumor growth of abnormal cells

Benign tumor

grows slowly

localized area

Malignant tumor

grows slow or fast depending on type of cancer

invades other tissues and/or travels to other parts of body

causes death if not treated and controlled

Tumor – Growth Of Abnormal Cells

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Cancer most common sites

Breast

Prostate

Uterus

Skin

Lungs

Colon

Rectum

Cancer – Most Common Sites

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.13.2List the seven warning signs of cancer.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Caution seven early warning signs of cancer

CAUTION=Seven Early Warning Signs Of Cancer

  • Change in bowel or bladder habits.

  • A sore that does not heal

  • Unusual bleeding or discharge

  • Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere

  • Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing

  • Obvious changes in a wart or mole

  • Nagging cough or hoarseness

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.13.3Describe the three most common types of treatment for cancer.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Standard cancer treatment

Standard Cancer Treatment

  • Surgery

  • Radiation therapy

  • Chemotherapy

    • oral

    • intramuscular

    • intravenous

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.13.4Discuss the guidelines for care of residents with cancer.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Guidelines for care of residents being treated for cancer

Fatigue - provide time for rest and recognize limitations

Loss of appetite

smaller meals

nutritious snacks

report requests for medications promptly

Guidelines For Care Of Residents Being Treated For Cancer

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Guidelines for care of residents being treated for cancer continued

Skin – keep clean and dry

eliminate irritation or pressure

report rashes, irritation, broken areas

Guidelines For Care Of Residents Being Treated For Cancer(continued)

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Guidelines for care of residents being treated for cancer continued1

Mouth - keep very clean

provide frequent mouth care

encourage liquids

Guidelines For Care Of Residents Being Treated For Cancer(continued)

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Guidelines for care of residents being treated for cancer continued2

Guidelines For Care Of Residents Being Treated For Cancer(continued)

  • Alopecia (loss of hair)

    • emotional support needed 

    • help resident to select head covering

      • wig

      • scarf

      • turban

      • hat 

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Guidelines for care of residents being treated for cancer continued3

Guidelines For Care Of Residents Being Treated For Cancer(continued)

  • Supportive actions

    • be positive but realistic

    • help to feel as attractive as possible

    • don’t offer false hope

    • listen to concerns

    • be understanding of fears and frustrations

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

Objective

7.13.5List observations relating to cancer.

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Cancer observations to report

Fever

Changes in weight

Bleeding

Changes in vital signs

Complaint of pain

Behavioral changes

Constipation

Diarrhea

Nausea and vomiting

Sores in mouth

Cancer – Observations To Report

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


Unit 7 common diseases and conditions of body systems

The End

DHSR Approved Curriculum-Unit 7


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