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Chapter 12. The Age of Jackson 1824-1840. Section 1. Politics of the People. The Election of 1824. 4 men run John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, and William Crawford Jackson won popular vote but not electoral The “corrupt bargain” House of Representatives choose Adams

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chapter 12

Chapter 12

The Age of Jackson

1824-1840

section 1

Section 1

Politics of the People

the election of 1824
The Election of 1824
  • 4 men run
    • John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, and William Crawford
  • Jackson won popular vote but not electoral
  • The “corrupt bargain”
    • House of Representatives choose Adams
    • Clay was charged with helping Adams get the Presidency in return for a position in the cabinet
jacksonian democracy
Jacksonian Democracy
  • 2 parties form
    • Democrats: supporters of Jackson and the common man
    • National Republicans: supporters of Adams and the wealthy
  • Jacksonian Democracy: implement majority rule by spreading political power to all people
    • Government should be ruled by all, not the educated elite
slide5

Andrew Jackson with the Tennessee forces on the Hickory Grounds (Ala) A.D. 1814, (between 1834 and 1845) unknown

the people s president
The People’s President
  • Jackson elected in 1828
  • First president not from Massachusetts or Virginia
  • Rose form a humble beginning to a man of power
    • Represented every American’s dreams
  • Threw an inauguration party on the White House lawn
a new political era begins
A New Political Era Begins
  • Jackson’s election marked the beginning of a new political era
  • Spoils System
    • Giving of government jobs to political backers
    • Jackson began this practice in America
    • Creates a strong government for the President
  • Will face 3 main issues
    • Status of Native Americans
    • Rights of the States
    • Role of the bank in the U.S.
section 2

Section 2

Jackson’s Policy Toward Native Americans

native americans in the southeast
Native Americans in the Southeast
  • Members of the Five Civilized Tribes held good farming land in the Southeast
  • Most whites wanted to remove them form the land
  • The Cherokee Nation
    • Adopted white customs
    • Acquired a written language, a constitution, and some held slaves
jackson s removal policy
Jackson’s Removal Policy
  • Wanted to remove Indians west of the Mississippi River
  • Indian Removal Act (1830)
    • Called for the government to negotiate treaties with the tribes to relocate west
the trail of tears
The Trail of Tears
  • Land was set aside in Oklahoma for the Indians
    • Became known as Indian Territory
  • Removals began in 1831 with the Choctaws
  • Cherokees
    • Sued the state of Georgia in 1832
    • John Marshal ruled that states cannot make laws governing the Indians
    • Jackson ignored the ruling
    • Cherokees began removal in 1838
    • Journey became known as the Trail of Tears
slide14

Painting by Robert Lindneux, retrieved from http://ngeorgia.com/history/nghisttt.html

native american resistance
Native American Resistance
  • The Second Seminole War (1835-1842)
    • Seminoles refused to leave Florida
    • Led by Osceola
    • Part of the Seminoles were removed while others were allowed to remain in Florida
  • Black Hawk War (1832)
    • Sauk chief Black Hawk led a group of Indians back to their land in Illinois
    • Militia and the U.S. army crush the uprising
slide16

Osceola

Black Hawk

http://www.indigenouspeople.net/osceola.htm

Permission Chicago Historical Society

section 3

Section 3

Conflicts Over States Rights

rising sectional differences
Rising Sectional Differences
  • 3 major economic issues
    • Sale of public lands
    • Internal improvements
    • Tariffs
  • Led to a rise in sectionalism
tariff of abominations
Tariff of Abominations
  • Southerners felt Northern economic interest was controlling national policy
  • Southerners had to sell cotton at lower prices and pay higher prices for manufactured goods
nullification crises
Nullification Crises

John C. Calhoun

  • Jackson’s Vice President
  • From South Carolina
  • Favored states rights
  • Introduced doctrine of nullification
    • states have the right to declare a law unconstitutional within its borders
the state s rights debate
The State’s Rights Debate
  • Webster-Hayne debate
    • Senate debate over who should have more power, the states or the federal government
  • Andrew Jackson favored strong federal government
  • John Calhoun favored states rights
  • Major political issue that divides the nation
south carolina threatens to secede
South Carolina Threatens to Secede
  • South Carolina nullifies the tariff acts of 1828 and 1832
    • Threatens secession
  • Jackson wins reelection in 1832
    • Henry Clay is new vice president
  • Clay introduced a compromise treaty in 1833
    • Treaty ended the crises
  • This crises lays the roots for the Civil War
section 4

Section 4

Prosperity and Panic

mr biddle s bank
Mr. Biddle’s Bank
  • Biddle
    • President of the Second Bank of the U.S.
    • Set policies that controlled the money supply
    • Asked Congress to renew bank charter in 1834
  • Jackson believed bank policies favored the rich
    • Thought bank had to much power
jackson s war on the bank
Jackson’s War on the Bank
  • Jackson vetoes charter renewal in 1832
    • Called the bank unconstitutional
    • Made the bank the central issue of his 1832 election campaign
    • Believed his reelection gave him public support to destroy the bank
    • Deposited government money in state banks
  • Biddle makes it harder to borrow money
  • Bank goes out of business
prosperity becomes panic
Prosperity Becomes Panic
  • Banks issued too much paper money
    • Caused inflation
    • Jackson demands all land must be bought in gold or silver
  • Panic of 1837
    • Banks ran out of gold and silver
    • Banks close
    • Country goes into a depression
    • 90% of Eastern factories closed in 1837
    • Americans blame Jackson’s successor Van Buren for the depression
rise of the whig party
Rise of the Whig Party
  • Van Buren thought government should stay out of economics
  • Clay and Webster begin the Whig Party
    • Opposed a powerful president
    • Nominated William Harrison for President in 1840
election of 1840
Election of 1840
  • Whigs emphasized personalities in the election
    • Appeal to the common people
    • Appeal to the West
  • Harrison wins
    • Dies on April 4, 1841 from pneumonia
    • First president to die in office
    • John Tyler assumes the Presidency
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