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Chapter 12. The Age of Jackson 1824-1840. Section 1. Politics of the People. The Election of 1824. 4 men run John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, and William Crawford Jackson won popular vote but not electoral The “corrupt bargain” House of Representatives choose Adams

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Chapter 12

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Chapter 12 l.jpg

Chapter 12

The Age of Jackson

1824-1840


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Section 1

Politics of the People


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The Election of 1824

  • 4 men run

    • John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, and William Crawford

  • Jackson won popular vote but not electoral

  • The “corrupt bargain”

    • House of Representatives choose Adams

    • Clay was charged with helping Adams get the Presidency in return for a position in the cabinet


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Jacksonian Democracy

  • 2 parties form

    • Democrats: supporters of Jackson and the common man

    • National Republicans: supporters of Adams and the wealthy

  • Jacksonian Democracy: implement majority rule by spreading political power to all people

    • Government should be ruled by all, not the educated elite


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Andrew Jackson with the Tennessee forces on the Hickory Grounds (Ala) A.D. 1814, (between 1834 and 1845) unknown


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The People’s President

  • Jackson elected in 1828

  • First president not from Massachusetts or Virginia

  • Rose form a humble beginning to a man of power

    • Represented every American’s dreams

  • Threw an inauguration party on the White House lawn


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Geography: State Voting Qualifications, 1828


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A New Political Era Begins

  • Jackson’s election marked the beginning of a new political era

  • Spoils System

    • Giving of government jobs to political backers

    • Jackson began this practice in America

    • Creates a strong government for the President

  • Will face 3 main issues

    • Status of Native Americans

    • Rights of the States

    • Role of the bank in the U.S.


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Section 2

Jackson’s Policy Toward Native Americans


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Native Americans in the Southeast

  • Members of the Five Civilized Tribes held good farming land in the Southeast

  • Most whites wanted to remove them form the land

  • The Cherokee Nation

    • Adopted white customs

    • Acquired a written language, a constitution, and some held slaves


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Jackson’s Removal Policy

  • Wanted to remove Indians west of the Mississippi River

  • Indian Removal Act (1830)

    • Called for the government to negotiate treaties with the tribes to relocate west


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The Trail of Tears

  • Land was set aside in Oklahoma for the Indians

    • Became known as Indian Territory

  • Removals began in 1831 with the Choctaws

  • Cherokees

    • Sued the state of Georgia in 1832

    • John Marshal ruled that states cannot make laws governing the Indians

    • Jackson ignored the ruling

    • Cherokees began removal in 1838

    • Journey became known as the Trail of Tears


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Painting by Robert Lindneux, retrieved from http://ngeorgia.com/history/nghisttt.html


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Native American Resistance

  • The Second Seminole War (1835-1842)

    • Seminoles refused to leave Florida

    • Led by Osceola

    • Part of the Seminoles were removed while others were allowed to remain in Florida

  • Black Hawk War (1832)

    • Sauk chief Black Hawk led a group of Indians back to their land in Illinois

    • Militia and the U.S. army crush the uprising


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Osceola

Black Hawk

http://www.indigenouspeople.net/osceola.htm

Permission Chicago Historical Society


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Section 3

Conflicts Over States Rights


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Rising Sectional Differences

  • 3 major economic issues

    • Sale of public lands

    • Internal improvements

    • Tariffs

  • Led to a rise in sectionalism


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Sectional Differences


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Tariff of Abominations

  • Southerners felt Northern economic interest was controlling national policy

  • Southerners had to sell cotton at lower prices and pay higher prices for manufactured goods


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Nullification Crises

John C. Calhoun

  • Jackson’s Vice President

  • From South Carolina

  • Favored states rights

  • Introduced doctrine of nullification

    • states have the right to declare a law unconstitutional within its borders


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The State’s Rights Debate

  • Webster-Hayne debate

    • Senate debate over who should have more power, the states or the federal government

  • Andrew Jackson favored strong federal government

  • John Calhoun favored states rights

  • Major political issue that divides the nation


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South Carolina Threatens to Secede

  • South Carolina nullifies the tariff acts of 1828 and 1832

    • Threatens secession

  • Jackson wins reelection in 1832

    • Henry Clay is new vice president

  • Clay introduced a compromise treaty in 1833

    • Treaty ended the crises

  • This crises lays the roots for the Civil War


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Section 4

Prosperity and Panic


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Mr. Biddle’s Bank

  • Biddle

    • President of the Second Bank of the U.S.

    • Set policies that controlled the money supply

    • Asked Congress to renew bank charter in 1834

  • Jackson believed bank policies favored the rich

    • Thought bank had to much power


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Jackson’s War on the Bank

  • Jackson vetoes charter renewal in 1832

    • Called the bank unconstitutional

    • Made the bank the central issue of his 1832 election campaign

    • Believed his reelection gave him public support to destroy the bank

    • Deposited government money in state banks

  • Biddle makes it harder to borrow money

  • Bank goes out of business


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Prosperity Becomes Panic

  • Banks issued too much paper money

    • Caused inflation

    • Jackson demands all land must be bought in gold or silver

  • Panic of 1837

    • Banks ran out of gold and silver

    • Banks close

    • Country goes into a depression

    • 90% of Eastern factories closed in 1837

    • Americans blame Jackson’s successor Van Buren for the depression


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Rise of the Whig Party

  • Van Buren thought government should stay out of economics

  • Clay and Webster begin the Whig Party

    • Opposed a powerful president

    • Nominated William Harrison for President in 1840


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Election of 1840

  • Whigs emphasized personalities in the election

    • Appeal to the common people

    • Appeal to the West

  • Harrison wins

    • Dies on April 4, 1841 from pneumonia

    • First president to die in office

    • John Tyler assumes the Presidency


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