An Overview of Solar & Wind Energy in the Kingdom of Bahrain and the GCC States
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An Overview of Solar & Wind Energy in the Kingdom of Bahrain and the GCC States Amman 27-28 March 2012 Khalid A. Burashid. Arabian Gulf. Energy Consumption GWh. Energy Demand Forecast (MW). 6500.

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An Overview of Solar & Wind Energy in the Kingdom of Bahrain and the GCC States

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An Overview of Solar & Wind Energy in the Kingdom of Bahrain and the GCC States

Amman 27-28 March 2012

Khalid A. Burashid


Arabian Gulf


Energy Consumption GWh


Energy Demand Forecast (MW)

6500

5503

4803

3539

2812

2015

2025

2020

2030

2011

4


Energy consumption by sector


The Study

Contents

Solar Energy

Wind Energy

Bahrain’s Development Project


Coverage Zone

Bahrain

E 50o 33` N 26o 1` 39”


Coverage Zone

E 47o 58` N 29o 22`

Kuwait

Bahrain

E 50o 33` N 26o 1` 39”

Doha

E 51o 32` 0” N 25o 17`12”

Al Hufuf

E 49o 35` N 25o 23`

Abu Dhabi

Muscat

E 58.54o 33` N 23.61


Coverage Zone

E 47o 58` N 29o 22`

Kuwait

Qaysuma

Bahrain

E 50o 33` N 26o 1` 39”

Doha

E 51o 32` 0” N 25o 17`12”

Al Hufuf

E 49o 35` N 25o 23`

Abu Dhabi

Muscat

E 58.54o 33` N 23.61

Solar

Wind


Coverage Zone

E 38o 39`11” N 31o 40` 39”

E 47o 58` N 29o 22`

Turaif

Kuwait

Qaysuma

Bahrain

E 50o 33` N 26o 1` 39”

E 36o 25` 0 ” N 26o 17 ` 0 ”

Doha

Al Wajh

E 51o 32` 0” N 25o 17`12”

Al Hufuf

E 49o 35` N 25o 23`

Abu Dhabi

Muscat

E 58.54o 33` N 23.61

Gizan

E 42o 33`40” N16o 53`21”

Solar

Wind


Annual direct normal irradiance “GCC”


Global Cloud Cover

Source: NASA MODIS TerraSat


Monthly Average Daily Global Radiation and average

Sunshine hours in Bahrain

9.2 hrs

5180 Whr/m2


Monthly average daily global radiation and Sunshine hours in Qatar (Doha)

9.3 hrs

5260 Whr/m2


Monthly average daily global radiation and sunshine hours in Saudi Arabia (Al Hufuf)

8.7 hrs

5670 Whr/m2


Monthly average daily global radiation and Sunshine hours in Kuwait

8.9 hrs

5990 Whr/m2


Monthly average daily global radiation and Sunshine hours in Oman (Al Sib)

9.6 hrs

5410 Whr/m2


Daily average solar radiation in the G.C.C Countries


Monthly average Irradiance on tilted plane (Bahrain)


Mathematical Model for Monthly Average Daily Global Radiation in Bahrain


Bahrain’s monthly variation of the fraction of possible duration of sunshine hours and the Clearness Index

June 0.635

H =Ho [A + B (S/So)]


The Radiation Model

For the Kingdom of Bahrain

H/Ho = 0.45186 S/So - 0.00924 RH - 0.00788 T + 1.03452

T : monthly mean daily temperature in oC.

RH : monthly mean relative humidity


Comparison between the proposed H/Ho model and other models for Bahrain

23


Comparison of the proposed model with the measured values for some GCC locations


Wind Energy


Mean Annual Wind Speeds in Bahrain


Wind summary - Bahrain


Mean Annual Wind Speeds in Qatar


Mean Annual Wind Speeds in UAE

29


Mean Annual Wind Speeds in Kuwait

m/sec


Solar versus wind powers in the Arabian Gulf Countries (W/m2)

!!


Monthly average wind speeds in Bahrain

and selected GCC locations


Monthly average wind speeds in Bahrain

and selected GCC locations


Bahrain's Demonstration Project

Solar and Wind

Bahrain's Vision for Renewal energy

Why solar & wind

Implementation Program


Onshore potential areas were defined after subtracting from the total areas of Bahrain:

• Residential and touristic areas with a minimum distance of 500m from them

• Industrial and agricultural areas were excluded only when infrastructure existed

• Airports and their surroundings following guidelines from ICAO Protected areas (wild life sanctuary, parks etc.)

Net area available is 218 km2


Offshore potential areas

were defined by subtracting from the total exclusive economical zone of Bahrain:

• All areas with a water depth larger than 30m

• Areas with visual impact on onshore facilities (10km facing touristic areas and 5km facing residential areas)

• Main shipping lane entering the port with a buffer region around it and all the ‘Bahrain Port Limit’ as specified by the ‘General Organization of Sea Ports’.

Net available area is 4,980 km2


Possible sites for wind

generators

Wind speed measured at 80 meters height


Wind speed measured at 100 meters height


The solar resources in Bahrain are relatively uniform, locations with better wind speed may also be better for solar panels to control the temperature. This means location criteria for Wind and Solar energy are similar


Initial Proposed Site Assessment for the Observation Plant

  • Capital Cost : US $ 12 Million

EWA proposed a site located south East. A = 13 hectars


Conclusion

Solar Energy:

Bahrain and the rest of the GCC states are subjected to very high solar radiation levels during summer months reaching up to 7200 Whr/m2 with an annual mean radiation of 5200 Whr/m2which justifies the use of this energy for small/medium size power generation

Despite the availability of such enormous energy, which is clean and renewable, applications are still very limited in this region. There are only a few ambitious programs for research and development aimed to expand the usage of these energies.

Electricity production and Sea water desalination utilizing Reverse Osmosis process powered by Solar and wind turbines may also be considered for small and medium size plants in remote areas.


Wind Energy:

Preliminary results show that the average wind ranges between 4.0 and 5.5 m/s. In a windy day wind power is equivalent to about 225 Watt/m2 distributed over 24 hours period.

Because of the frequency of calms, wind power can not contribute significantly to a firm power generation, however, it could be efficiently used in a hybrid wind/solar scheme.

Further research and Studies on wind potential is recommended for developing experience with turbine generators performance and their economics in this region


Thank You

Khalid Burashid


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