Cyanobacteria only chl a
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Cyanobacteria(only chl a). Eg. Oscillatoria , Synecococcus Phycobilins (green color), in phycobilisomes, chlorophyll a phycoerythrin-red, phycocyanin-blue reaction center - thyllakoids (lamellar membranes) carboxysomes- Rubisco- CO 2 fixation heterocysts

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Cyanobacteria(only chl a)

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Cyanobacteria only chl a

Cyanobacteria(only chl a)

  • Eg. Oscillatoria, Synecococcus

  • Phycobilins (green color), in phycobilisomes, chlorophyll a

  • phycoerythrin-red, phycocyanin-blue

  • reaction center - thyllakoids (lamellar membranes)

  • carboxysomes- Rubisco- CO2 fixation

  • heterocysts

  • Significance - primary production, nuisance blooms

  • Prochlorophytes (chl a and b) NO phycobilins


Cyanobacteria only chl a

Cyanobacteria-oxygenic phototrophs

Bacteria


Gram positive bacteria

GRAM positive Bacteria

  • Non-sporulating low GC, eg. Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, "Epulopiscium"

  • Endospore forming low GC, eg. Bacillus, Clostridium acetobutylicum

  • Cell wall-less low GC (Mycoplasma), compare Thermoplasma

  • High GC (Coryneform and Propionic), swiss cheese

  • High GC (Mycobacterium), Unique lipids= mycolic acids, TB, leprosy

  • Filamentous, High GC, -Actinomycetes; Streptomyces and antibiotics


Chlamydia

Chlamydia

  • intracellular parasites of humans (get ATP from host)

  • like Planctomycetes, they lack peptidoglycan in cell walls

  • psittacosis


Planctomycetes

Planctomycetes

  • Nature Volume 400 Number 6743 p 446-449, Missing lithotroph identified as new planctomycete

  • The new planctomycete grows extremely slowly, dividing only once every two weeks.

  • The identification of this bacterium as the one responsible for anaerobic oxidation of ammonia makes an important contribution to the problem of unculturability.

  • budding, most are heterotrophs

  • odd cell divsion, stalked

  • Isosphaera pallidum, hot spring isolate


Bacteroides and flavobacteria

Bacteroides and flavobacteria

  • rumen, gram - anaerobe, grow heterotrophically, best with bile acids


Green sulfur bacteria

Green sulfur bacteria

  • eg. Chlorobium

  • often appear brown because of carotenoids

  • anoxygenic photosynthesis, efficient energetically, NADPH reduced directly

  • sulfur on the outside

  • more tolerant of high H2S

  • very small cells

  • Has chlorosome


Spirochetes

Spirochetes

  • Slender motile cells

  • move like corkscrew

  • axial element, flagella in periplasmic space, 2 sets of 'fibrils'

  • freeliving and interesting symbiosis (eg termite guts) J. R. Leadbetter, T. M. Schmidt, J. R. Graber, and J. A. Breznak. 1999.

  • Acetogenesis from H2 Plus CO2 by Spirochetes from Termite Guts. Science 283: 686-689.

  • Borellia (lymes disease). Genome.

  • Complete Genome Sequence of Treponema pallidum, the Syphilis Spirochete. Science 1998 July 17; 281:375-388.


Deinococcus thermus

Deinococcus/Thermus

  • THERMUS

  • Taq polymerase,

  • heterotrophs, aerobes

  • often pigmented


Deinococcus

DEINOCOCCUS

  • radiation resistant and desiccation resistance

  • > 100rad radiation + 30 000Gy (humans killed by < 5Gy)

  • very effective DNA repair mechanism


Green non sulfur bacteria

Green non-sulfur Bacteria

  • Chloroflexus

  • Photoheterotroph, anaerobe

  • photoautotroph, anaerobe (sulfide and H2 are e-donors)

  • Reaction center similar to purple S

  • chemoheterotroph and aerobe in the dark!

  • Used an unusual pathway to fix CO2 (hydroxyproprionate pathway)

  • also has chlorosome


Cyanobacteria only chl a

Ward et al., MMBR, 62:1353


Other thermophiles

Other thermophiles

  • Thermotoga

    toga, heterotrophic thermophile

    Thermodesulfurobacterium

    • ether-linked lipids like Archaea (Ammonifex, Gram + has this too)

      Desulfurobacterium

    • S-reducing chemolithotroph recently descibed lineage from deep-sea vents


Aquifex hydrogenobacter et al

Aquifex-Hydrogenobacter et al.

  • most are chemolithotrophs, "knall gas" reaction

  • thermophiles

  • small genome


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