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Vikas Nath President The Digital Governance Initiative www.DigitalGovernance.org. Comparative E-Governance Models and Applications : Developing vs. Developed Countries with specific reference to Asia. e-Governance Executive Master programme at EPFL Lausanne, Switzerland 9 December 2005.

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Vikas Nath

President

The Digital Governance Initiative

www.DigitalGovernance.org

Comparative E-Governance Models and Applications:

Developing vs. Developed Countries

with specific reference to Asia

e-Governance Executive Master programme at EPFL

Lausanne, Switzerland

9 December 2005


Let us get out of this classroom to get a better understanding of this session
Let us get out of this classroom…. to get a better understanding of this session….


Who is the government for citizens who are the citizens for government
Who is theGovernment for Citizens ?Who are theCitizens for Government ?

CITIZENS

GOVERNMENT

Women

Central

Government

Home

Ministry

Farmers

Taxpayer

Courts

Agriculture

Department

Rural

Population

National

Banks

Senior

Citizens

Municipality

Un-

Employed

State

Government

Customs

Entrepreneur

Media

Excise

Department

Police


E governance is about match making building relationships and trust
E-Governance is about Match- Making: Building Relationships and Trust

GOVERNMENT

SERVICE PROVIDERS

USER GROUPS

E- GOVERNANCE

Un-

Employed

Transport

Ministry

Farmers

Department of

Youth Employment

NGO

Workers

CITIZENS

Home

Ministry

Women

Senior

Citizens

Local

Municipalities

Children

Local

Media

Health

Department

Local

Businesses

Agriculture

Department


Case a the pre e governance situation
Case A: The pre E-Governance situation

V= Value of Service being derived by the user U

V1B

A

B

V1A

U1

V2C

C

U2

U4

V4D

U3

V3D

D

V5D

U5

SERVICES (A, B, C, D)

USERS (5)

Total Public Value of Services derived = U1V1 + U2V2 + U3V3 + U4V4 + U5V5


Case b desired post e governance situation
Case B: Desired post E-Governance situation

G

U6

U8

A

B

U1

U7

C

E

U2

U4

U3

F

D

U5

SERVICES (A, B, C, D, E, F)

USERS (8)

Public Value of E-Governance Services

= U1V1 + U2V2 + U3V3 + U4V4 + U5V5 + ….. + UiVj


A key learning developing vs developed countries e governance model
A Key Learning: Developing vs Developed Countries E-Governance Model !

ICTs enhances Information Access and Flows…

almost automatically in project designs

But creating:

Politically and Citizen Relevant E-Governance Models the “Geometry of Information Flows” needs to be RESHAPED within the society.

And this is all the more required in Developing Countries where information asymmetries are higher and channels to access information limited.


5 Geometrically Sensitive E-Governance Model !

E-Governance Models

  • Wider Dissemination Model

  • Critical Flow Model

  • Comparative Analysis Model

  • E-advocacy/ Pressure group model

  • Interactive-Service Model


Wider Disseminating Model E-Governance Model !

Information:

Public Domain Wider Public Domain

CITIZENS

  • Govt. Laws, Legislations, Notices

  • Local Govt. Offices and Officials Information

  • Government Budget, Plans and Expenditures

  • Key Judicial Decisions: state vs. citizen decisions

  • Government Tenders, Procurement Notice

  • Government Employment

Wider Public Domain

CITIZENS

Public

Domain

Information

CITIZENS


Examples E-Governance Model !

Mongolia: Open Government

http://open-government.mn

Philippines: Government Online (but not yet!)

http://www.gov.ph/directory/

Malaysia: E-Flood Information

http://jps.selangor.gov.my

Uzbekistan: Portal of the State of Authority

http://www.gov.uz


MONGOLIA E-Governance Model !


MALAYSIA: E-Governance Model ! E-Flood Information DID (JPS) Selangor State

http://jps.selangor.ggy.my

  • The system integrates all hydrology data from District DID (JPS) to the Shah Alam Hydrology Unit automatically and in real time.

  • It then provides real-time river monitoring to safequard life and property, and offers flood warnings through SMS.

  • The project simplifies government agency flood rescue operations.



Critical Flow Model E-Governance Model !

Critical Information:

Private Domain Wider Public Domain

  • Corruption Information

  • Enquiry reports, scientific research, impact studies commissioned

  • Company’s Green Ratings

  • Human Rights Violations Records

  • Whistle Blowing

Wider Domain

Private Domain

Information


Examples E-Governance Model !

India: Central Vigilance Committee www.cvc.nic.in

Online filing of complaints against public officials and online exposing of names of Corrupted Government Officials.

Bangladesh: Human Rights Portal www.banglarights.net

independent web portal which exposes and challenges discriminations and violations of human rights.

Mexico: Declarenet www.declaranet.gob.mx

Declaranet" allows for on-line filing of income for federal employees.

Bloggers




Comparative Analysis Model E-Governance Model !

Information:

Private / Public Domain + Public / Private Domain Wider Public Domain

Public/Private

Domain

Wider Domain

Public Domain

Information

Public/Private

Domain


Comparative analysis model
Comparative Analysis Model E-Governance Model !

  • Based on Precedence Information

  • (time line)

  • With and Without Information

  • Court Rulings / Historical Archive

  • Tracking Performance Records / Financial Assets Growth of Ministers

  • Electoral Candidates Information

  • Bringing out Best / Worst Practices

  • Cases of Corruption, Budget Irregularities


Examples E-Governance Model !

India: National Courts

http://indiancourts.nic.in

Sri Lanka: Comparison of Education Indicators (Kothmale Project)

India: Green Ratings of Chief Ministers/ Comparing Environmental Records of Industries

http://www.cseindia.org

India: Comparative Learning from Disasters

http://www.nic.in


INDIA: National Courts E-Governance Model !



Mobilisation and Lobbying Model E-Governance Model !

Building Allies / Networking Networks for

Concerted Action

Virtual Community

Communities

Individuals

Real Community

Common

Goal

Networks

Interest

Groups


Examples E-Governance Model !

  • Planned, Directed, Strategic flow of Information to build strong issue-based Allies / solidarity to complement action in Real World.

  • (often through combination of other models)

  • SMS and Mobile Campaigns- Philippines and Ukraine

  • Signature Campaign: India (Petition OnlineCorruption)

  • e-Signature Campaigns: Pakistan

  • e-Groups on Agriculture

  • Zimbabwe Kubatana.net (using emails for lobbying)


INDIA: Demand for Full Inquiry and Justice in Murder of Mr. Satyendra Dubey for his Fight Against Corruption

Batchmate Sanjeev Sinha, started a petition on www.petitiononline.com and gathered almost 50,000 signatures in a month to force a Criminal Bureau Investigation. The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) even took cognizance of the electronic petition and told Sinha about the progress on the case.

To:  The Prime Minister of India Dec. 1st 2003. Sub: Demand for Full Inquiry and Justice in Murder of Satyendra Dubey for his Fight Against Corruption. Dear Mr. Prime Minister, Satyendra Dubey, a very capable, honest and upright person, was working as a senior engineer of National Highways Authority of India on Golden Quadrilateral project. As can be expected of an honest officer Satyendra did not bend in front of the vice of the system and was actively fighting against corruption.

57640 Total

e-Signatures


Service Delivery Model Satyendra Dubey for his Fight Against Corruption

USER SERVICE PROVIDER

E-Government

E- debates

E-ballots

E-procurement of services

E-administration: taxes, parking tickets, licenses


Selective - Service Model Satyendra Dubey for his Fight Against Corruption

Online form processing, individual-identity/ authentication-based transactions (initiated by thematic government offices)

Citizen

A

  • Applying for selected government products. Eg: driving license (Transport Ministry), Land registration certificates (Rural Devlp. Ministry)

  • Payment for goverment services. Eg: taxes, license fees, custom duties

  • Online voting

  • Online purchase of government reports

  • Filing of grievance and queries

Service X

Govt. Office X

Citizen

B

Service Y

Govt. Office Y

Citizen

C


Examples Satyendra Dubey for his Fight Against Corruption

Philippines: Online Marriage, Birth Certificates (City of Manila)

http://www.cityofmanila.com.ph/service.htm

India: Lokvani Online Complaints (42 Kiosks, Sitapur)

http://sitapur.nic.in/lokvani/default.htm

India: Delhi Government Online Complaint Form complaints.mcdonline.gov.in


PHILIPPINES Satyendra Dubey for his Fight Against Corruption


Bhoomi Model, Land Registration, INDIA Satyendra Dubey for his Fight Against Corruption

All 20 million land records of 6.7 million land owners in 176 blocks of Karnataka has been computerised. And digital records and maps are now Legal Documents admissible for Bank Loans and Dispute Resolutions.


INDIA (Delhi): Online Complaint Form Satyendra Dubey for his Fight Against Corruption


One-Stop Citizen Portal Model Satyendra Dubey for his Fight Against Corruption

Unifying portal that offers full case handling, decision-making and delivery for diverse services

Service X

Govt. Office X

Citizen

A

ONE – STOP PORTAL

  • Citizen-centred model as an entry point to all interactions with the government

  • Avenues for making online transactions, making payments for range of government services

Service X

Govt. Office X

Citizen

B

Service X

Govt. Office X

Citizen

C

Service X

Govt. Office X


Examples Satyendra Dubey for his Fight Against Corruption

Singapore: eCitizen

http://www.ecitizen.gov.sg/

India: Andhra Pradesh State Government Portal

http://www.esevaonline.com/

UK: DirectGov http://www.direct.gov.uk/Homepage/fs/en(Replaces UK Online)

Malta: Government Information and Services Online

http://www.gov.mt/index.asp?l=2


SINGAPORE Satyendra Dubey for his Fight Against Corruption


Andhra Pradesh, INDIA Satyendra Dubey for his Fight Against Corruption


More than 1 reason for e government do we see any pattern
More than 1 reason for E-Government: Satyendra Dubey for his Fight Against CorruptionDo we see any pattern?

Transformation vs. Efficiency?

  • USA: Part of market-oriented government reform process, to maintain

    national competitiveness, realize in-depth democracy and enhance citizen satisfaction

  • UK : To enhance administrative efficiency, effectiveness, and responsiveness

  • Korea : Part of new growth engine after exponential economic growth

  • Australia: Reduce gaps between service standards between cities in the vast country

  • Singapore: Means to become the number-one country in the 21st century by taking advantage of its superior workforce and excellent economic environment

  • India : To open up government processes and enable greater public access to information

  • Malaysia: Transform government from bureaucracy to government for common people


Guidelines for weaving Satyendra Dubey for his Fight Against CorruptionPolitically and Citizen Relevant E-Governance ModelsWhat Developed Countries could learn from E-Governance Models in Developing Countries?

  • Who are our Target groups that we want to reach out to, through Internet?

  • What are the key information needs of the disadvantaged community?

  • What are the existing channels by which information reaches to the disadvantaged community?

  • What is the weakest link in the chain of information flows: from source to the disadvantaged communities?


For more information

For more information: Satyendra Dubey for his Fight Against Corruption

Vikas Nath

founder

http://www.DigitalGovernance.org

http://www.DevNetJobs.org

A network of over 2800 individuals with National Networks in India, Ghana, Nigeria and Nepal.

[email protected]

http://www.VikasNath.org


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