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Chapter 13 Social Cognition and Moral Development

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Chapter 13 Social Cognition and Moral Development. Chapter 13: Social Cognition and Moral Development. Social cognition: ability to understand psychological differences in others Adopt other’s perspectives Theory of Mind: False Belief Task

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chapter 13 social cognition and moral development
Chapter 13: Social Cognition and Moral Development
  • Social cognition: ability to understand

psychological differences in others

    • Adopt other’s perspectives
  • Theory of Mind: False Belief Task
    • Where will Sally look for marble when she returns? (See next slide)
    • Used to predict and explain human behavior before 4 yrs of age
      • “he wanted to. . .” “he intended to. .”
developing a theory of mind
Developing a Theory of Mind
  • Attentive parents
  • Joint attention
  • Pretend play
  • Imitation
  • Social experiences
  • Talking about mental states
  • Sensitivity to feelings of others
nature and nurture
Nature and Nurture
  • Nature: Theory of mind proved adaptive
    • Functioning in a social group
      • Gain resources and survive
      • Bargaining, conflict resolution, cooperation
  • Nurture: Acquiring language and interaction
    • Having siblings, sensitive parents
    • Using mental states to explain behavior
      • “How do you think she felt?”
person perception
Person Perception
  • Psychological traits observed
    • Used to explain behavior
    • By about age 7 or 8
  • Understanding personality
    • Through adolescence
    • Used to evaluate others
role taking skills
Role-Taking Skills
  • The ability to adopt another’s perspective
    • Moving away from egocentrism
    • Essential in thinking about moral issues
  • Beginning of empathy – about age 2
  • 3-6 yr olds – egocentric
  • 12+ - multiple perspectives
  • Socially isolated older adults decline related to processing speed
perspectives on moral development
Perspectives on Moral Development
  • Three components of morality
    • 1) Cognitive: Distinguish right from wrong
    • 2) Behavioral: Act accordingly (Prosocial)
    • 3) Affective: Feel pride and guilt or shame
      • Empathy: a vicarious experience
  • Most are motivated to avoid negative emotions
psychoanalytic theory
Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Superego: conscience
    • Oedipus Complex
    • Internalization of parental morals
  • Emotion important in morality
  • Responsive parenting important
  • Gender differences unsupported
cognitive developmental theory
Cognitive-Developmental Theory
  • Piaget’s views
    • Premoral Period: not moral beings
    • Heteronomous Morality: ages 6-10
      • Believe in rules from parents
      • Consequences/amount of damage
    • Autonomous: at ages10-11
      • Rules are agreements – not absolutes
      • Intention more important than consequences
kohlberg reasoning about moral dilemmas
Kohlberg: Reasoning about Moral Dilemmas
  • Preconventional: egocentric
    • Punishment and obedience
    • Instrumental hedonism
  • Conventional: consideration of others
    • Good boy/girl morality
    • Authority/social order maintaining
  • Postconventional: consideration of all
    • Morality of contract
    • Individual principles of conscience
social learning theory
Social Learning Theory
  • Moral Behavior (Bandura)
  • Cognitive self-regulation
    • Anticipation, apply consequences to self
    • Moral disengagement
      • No self condemnation for immoral acts
  • Situational context important
early moral training
Early Moral Training
  • Children internalize moral standards
  • By 18-24 mo. learn through experiences to:
    • 1) Associate negative emotions with violating rules
      • Positive relationship w/parent important
    • 2) Exert self-control when tempted
  • Prosocial behavior by age 2 (and earlier)
  • Punishment must always be accompanied by an explanation
intentions and rules research
Intentions and Rules: Research
  • Piaget: consequences vs. intentions
    • Nelson: 3 yr. olds can judge intention
    • Theory of mind: “I didn’t mean it!”
  • Piaget: questioning rules
    • Turiel: moral rules by age 2 1/2
    • Adult rules often questioned
raising moral children
Raising Moral Children
  • Social Learning Theory
    • R+ moral behavior
    • Punish immoral behavior
    • Model moral behavior
  • Hoffman: Three Approaches to Discipline
    • Love withdrawal: negative effects
    • Power assertion: moral immaturity
    • Induction: related to moral maturity
temperament and moral development
Temperament and Moral Development
  • Fearful, inhibited children
    • Become more fearful when reprimanded
    • Use gentle discipline
  • Fearless, uninhibited children
    • Relationship with parent important
  • “Goodness of fit”
  • What works for one child may not for another
the adolescent
The Adolescent
  • Changes in moral reasoning
    • Shift to conventional reasoning
    • Identity includes moral and values
  • Two kinds of antisocial youth
    • 1) Temporary in adolescence
    • 2) Chronic/seriously aggressive
      • Less empathy for distress of others
      • Little remorse for criminal behavior
dodge s social information processing model
Dodge’s Social Information-Processing Model
  • Individual’s reaction to frustration, anger
    • Not simply social cues
    • Deficient information processing
    • For most, accuracy improves with age
    • Aggressive kids show a bias toward attributing hostile intent/motive
    • Also choose aggressive response
    • Rejection, abuse in upbringing
patterson s coercive family environments
Patterson’s Coercive Family Environments
  • Ineffective parenting in childhood
  • Family members in power struggle
    • Try to control each other coercively
    • Threatening, hitting, even abuse
  • Unpleasant aggressive child
    • Performs poorly in school
    • Disliked by other children
  • Chooses aggressive peer group
nature nurture
Nature-Nurture
  • Inherit predisposition for aggression
  • Behavior evokes coercive parenting
  • Parenting strengthens aggression
  • Less opportunity to learn emotional control
  • Exposure to violence in society
  • Lower SES: violence to solve problems
  • Both bullies and victims of bullies more likely to behave violently
the adult
The Adult
  • Postconventional reasoning is possible
  • Stable through about age 75
  • Important moral lessons learned in life
  • Spirituality: search for meaning in life
    • Evident among reflective adults
  • Religion: Little change even in old age
advanced moral reasoning
Advanced Moral Reasoning
  • Necessary cognitive skills
    • Perspective-taking
    • Formal operations
  • Social learning experiences
    • Interactions with parents
    • Discussions with peers
    • Higher education
    • Democracy
kohlberg in perspective
Kohlberg in Perspective
  • Sequence supported
  • Devalued parental influence not supported
  • Emphasis on peer contributions supported
  • Cultural bias
  • Liberal bias
  • Gender bias not supported
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