Chapter 13
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 26

Chapter 13 Social Cognition and Moral Development PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 99 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chapter 13 Social Cognition and Moral Development. Chapter 13: Social Cognition and Moral Development. Social cognition: ability to understand psychological differences in others Adopt other’s perspectives Theory of Mind: False Belief Task

Download Presentation

Chapter 13 Social Cognition and Moral Development

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chapter 13 social cognition and moral development

Chapter 13Social Cognition and Moral Development


Chapter 13 social cognition and moral development

Chapter 13: Social Cognition and Moral Development

  • Social cognition: ability to understand

    psychological differences in others

    • Adopt other’s perspectives

  • Theory of Mind: False Belief Task

    • Where will Sally look for marble when she returns? (See next slide)

    • Used to predict and explain human behavior before 4 yrs of age

      • “he wanted to. . .” “he intended to. .”


Chapter 13 social cognition and moral development

Figure 13.1


Developing a theory of mind

Developing a Theory of Mind

  • Attentive parents

  • Joint attention

  • Pretend play

  • Imitation

  • Social experiences

  • Talking about mental states

  • Sensitivity to feelings of others


Nature and nurture

Nature and Nurture

  • Nature: Theory of mind proved adaptive

    • Functioning in a social group

      • Gain resources and survive

      • Bargaining, conflict resolution, cooperation

  • Nurture: Acquiring language and interaction

    • Having siblings, sensitive parents

    • Using mental states to explain behavior

      • “How do you think she felt?”


Person perception

Person Perception

  • Psychological traits observed

    • Used to explain behavior

    • By about age 7 or 8

  • Understanding personality

    • Through adolescence

    • Used to evaluate others


Role taking skills

Role-Taking Skills

  • The ability to adopt another’s perspective

    • Moving away from egocentrism

    • Essential in thinking about moral issues

  • Beginning of empathy – about age 2

  • 3-6 yr olds – egocentric

  • 12+ - multiple perspectives

  • Socially isolated older adults decline related to processing speed


Perspectives on moral development

Perspectives on Moral Development

  • Three components of morality

    • 1) Cognitive: Distinguish right from wrong

    • 2) Behavioral: Act accordingly (Prosocial)

    • 3) Affective: Feel pride and guilt or shame

      • Empathy: a vicarious experience

  • Most are motivated to avoid negative emotions


Psychoanalytic theory

Psychoanalytic Theory

  • Superego: conscience

    • Oedipus Complex

    • Internalization of parental morals

  • Emotion important in morality

  • Responsive parenting important

  • Gender differences unsupported


Cognitive developmental theory

Cognitive-Developmental Theory

  • Piaget’s views

    • Premoral Period: not moral beings

    • Heteronomous Morality: ages 6-10

      • Believe in rules from parents

      • Consequences/amount of damage

    • Autonomous: at ages10-11

      • Rules are agreements – not absolutes

      • Intention more important than consequences


Kohlberg reasoning about moral dilemmas

Kohlberg: Reasoning about Moral Dilemmas

  • Preconventional: egocentric

    • Punishment and obedience

    • Instrumental hedonism

  • Conventional: consideration of others

    • Good boy/girl morality

    • Authority/social order maintaining

  • Postconventional: consideration of all

    • Morality of contract

    • Individual principles of conscience


Social learning theory

Social Learning Theory

  • Moral Behavior (Bandura)

  • Cognitive self-regulation

    • Anticipation, apply consequences to self

    • Moral disengagement

      • No self condemnation for immoral acts

  • Situational context important


Early moral training

Early Moral Training

  • Children internalize moral standards

  • By 18-24 mo. learn through experiences to:

    • 1) Associate negative emotions with violating rules

      • Positive relationship w/parent important

    • 2) Exert self-control when tempted

  • Prosocial behavior by age 2 (and earlier)

  • Punishment must always be accompanied by an explanation


Intentions and rules research

Intentions and Rules: Research

  • Piaget: consequences vs. intentions

    • Nelson: 3 yr. olds can judge intention

    • Theory of mind: “I didn’t mean it!”

  • Piaget: questioning rules

    • Turiel: moral rules by age 2 1/2

    • Adult rules often questioned


Raising moral children

Raising Moral Children

  • Social Learning Theory

    • R+ moral behavior

    • Punish immoral behavior

    • Model moral behavior

  • Hoffman: Three Approaches to Discipline

    • Love withdrawal: negative effects

    • Power assertion: moral immaturity

    • Induction: related to moral maturity


Temperament and moral development

Temperament and Moral Development

  • Fearful, inhibited children

    • Become more fearful when reprimanded

    • Use gentle discipline

  • Fearless, uninhibited children

    • Relationship with parent important

  • “Goodness of fit”

  • What works for one child may not for another


The adolescent

The Adolescent

  • Changes in moral reasoning

    • Shift to conventional reasoning

    • Identity includes moral and values

  • Two kinds of antisocial youth

    • 1) Temporary in adolescence

    • 2) Chronic/seriously aggressive

      • Less empathy for distress of others

      • Little remorse for criminal behavior


Dodge s social information processing model

Dodge’s Social Information-Processing Model

  • Individual’s reaction to frustration, anger

    • Not simply social cues

    • Deficient information processing

    • For most, accuracy improves with age

    • Aggressive kids show a bias toward attributing hostile intent/motive

    • Also choose aggressive response

    • Rejection, abuse in upbringing


Patterson s coercive family environments

Patterson’s Coercive Family Environments

  • Ineffective parenting in childhood

  • Family members in power struggle

    • Try to control each other coercively

    • Threatening, hitting, even abuse

  • Unpleasant aggressive child

    • Performs poorly in school

    • Disliked by other children

  • Chooses aggressive peer group


Nature nurture

Nature-Nurture

  • Inherit predisposition for aggression

  • Behavior evokes coercive parenting

  • Parenting strengthens aggression

  • Less opportunity to learn emotional control

  • Exposure to violence in society

  • Lower SES: violence to solve problems

  • Both bullies and victims of bullies more likely to behave violently


The adult

The Adult

  • Postconventional reasoning is possible

  • Stable through about age 75

  • Important moral lessons learned in life

  • Spirituality: search for meaning in life

    • Evident among reflective adults

  • Religion: Little change even in old age


Advanced moral reasoning

Advanced Moral Reasoning

  • Necessary cognitive skills

    • Perspective-taking

    • Formal operations

  • Social learning experiences

    • Interactions with parents

    • Discussions with peers

    • Higher education

    • Democracy


Kohlberg in perspective

Kohlberg in Perspective

  • Sequence supported

  • Devalued parental influence not supported

  • Emphasis on peer contributions supported

  • Cultural bias

  • Liberal bias

  • Gender bias not supported


  • Login