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Chapter 17.3

- How do buoyancy and Archimedes’ principle relate to fluids?

Buoyancy

- measure of the upward pressure a fluid exerts on an object.

What is Archimedes’ principle?

- the force exerted on an object in a liquid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.

Example

- If a rock weighs 2.25 N using a spring scale is placed in water
- the scale will then register 1.8 N
- the water experts a force of 0.45 N

According to Archimedes’ principle the weight of the water displaced was 0.45 N

Why do objects sink and float?

- If the buoyancy factor is greater than the weight of the object, the object floats.
- If the buoyancy factor is less than the weight of the object, the object sinks.

Why does a block of steel sink, but a steel boat float?

- 1 cubic meter of water = 9,800 N
- 1 cubic meter of steel = 76,400 N
- What happens?

The block of steel is flattened and hollowed inside to make a boat, approx. 10 cubic meters.

- How much water is displaced?
- 10 cubic meters of water = 98,000 N
- 1 cubic meter of steel = 76,400 N
- What happens?

Charles’ law

- The volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature.
- The volume of a gas decreases with decreasing temperature.

How does Charles’ Law explain how a hot air balloon works.

- As the air inside is heated it will become less dense than that the air outside the balloon

What is atmospheric pressure?

- the force required to hold the air around the earth
- At the Earth’s surface the atmospheric pressure is 101,300 pascals or newtons.

Boyle’s Law states

- 1. as the pressure of gas increases, its volume decreases proportionately.
- 2. as the pressure of gas decreases, its volume increases proportionately.

Formula for Boyle’s law

- P1 = initial pressure V1 = initial volume
- P2 = new pressure V2 = new volume
- P1 V1 = P2 V2

Example

- Suppose 5 L of air at atmospheric pressure(101.3 Kilopascals) is compressed in a 0.5 L aerosol can. What is the pressure of the compressed air in the can?
- Work the problem

HOMEWORK:

- Compare and contrast Charles’s law and Boyle’s Law

Viscosity:

- 1. Measure of a materials resistance to flow.
- 2. Determined by the siae and shape of the molecules

Temperature and Viscosity

- As a liquid gets warmer its viscosity decreases.
- As a gas gets warmer its viscosity increases.

HOMEWORK:

- P. 307 Problems 1-3
- Honors 1-5

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