Chapter 17.3

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# Chapter 17.3 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Chapter 17.3. How do buoyancy and Archimedes’ principle relate to fluids?. Buoyancy. measure of the upward pressure a fluid exerts on an object. What is Archimedes’ principle?. the force exerted on an object in a liquid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. Example.

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Presentation Transcript
Chapter 17.3
• How do buoyancy and Archimedes’ principle relate to fluids?
Buoyancy
• measure of the upward pressure a fluid exerts on an object.
What is Archimedes’ principle?
• the force exerted on an object in a liquid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
Example
• If a rock weighs 2.25 N using a spring scale is placed in water
• the scale will then register 1.8 N
• the water experts a force of 0.45 N
Why do objects sink and float?
• If the buoyancy factor is greater than the weight of the object, the object floats.
• If the buoyancy factor is less than the weight of the object, the object sinks.
Why does a block of steel sink, but a steel boat float?
• 1 cubic meter of water = 9,800 N
• 1 cubic meter of steel = 76,400 N
• What happens?
The block of steel is flattened and hollowed inside to make a boat, approx. 10 cubic meters.
• How much water is displaced?
• 10 cubic meters of water = 98,000 N
• 1 cubic meter of steel = 76,400 N
• What happens?
Charles’ law
• The volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature.
• The volume of a gas decreases with decreasing temperature.
How does Charles’ Law explain how a hot air balloon works.
• As the air inside is heated it will become less dense than that the air outside the balloon
What is atmospheric pressure?
• the force required to hold the air around the earth
• At the Earth’s surface the atmospheric pressure is 101,300 pascals or newtons.
Boyle’s Law states
• 1. as the pressure of gas increases, its volume decreases proportionately.
• 2. as the pressure of gas decreases, its volume increases proportionately.
Formula for Boyle’s law
• P1 = initial pressure V1 = initial volume
• P2 = new pressure V2 = new volume
• P1 V1 = P2 V2
Example
• Suppose 5 L of air at atmospheric pressure(101.3 Kilopascals) is compressed in a 0.5 L aerosol can. What is the pressure of the compressed air in the can?
• Work the problem
HOMEWORK:
• Compare and contrast Charles’s law and Boyle’s Law
Viscosity:
• 1. Measure of a materials resistance to flow.
• 2. Determined by the siae and shape of the molecules
Temperature and Viscosity
• As a liquid gets warmer its viscosity decreases.
• As a gas gets warmer its viscosity increases.
HOMEWORK:
• P. 307 Problems 1-3
• Honors 1-5