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Chapter 17.3. How do buoyancy and Archimedes’ principle relate to fluids?. Buoyancy. measure of the upward pressure a fluid exerts on an object. What is Archimedes’ principle?. the force exerted on an object in a liquid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. Example.

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Chapter 17.3

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Chapter 17.3

  • How do buoyancy and Archimedes’ principle relate to fluids?


Buoyancy

  • measure of the upward pressure a fluid exerts on an object.


What is Archimedes’ principle?

  • the force exerted on an object in a liquid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.


Example

  • If a rock weighs 2.25 N using a spring scale is placed in water

  • the scale will then register 1.8 N

  • the water experts a force of 0.45 N


According to Archimedes’ principle the weight of the water displaced was 0.45 N


Different fluids all have different buoyancy


Why do objects sink and float?

  • If the buoyancy factor is greater than the weight of the object, the object floats.

  • If the buoyancy factor is less than the weight of the object, the object sinks.


Why does a block of steel sink, but a steel boat float?

  • 1 cubic meter of water = 9,800 N

  • 1 cubic meter of steel = 76,400 N

  • What happens?


The block of steel is flattened and hollowed inside to make a boat, approx. 10 cubic meters.

  • How much water is displaced?

  • 10 cubic meters of water = 98,000 N

  • 1 cubic meter of steel = 76,400 N

  • What happens?


Buoyancy and gases


Charles’ law

  • The volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature.

  • The volume of a gas decreases with decreasing temperature.


How does Charles’ Law explain how a hot air balloon works.

  • As the air inside is heated it will become less dense than that the air outside the balloon


Gases and pressure


What is atmospheric pressure?

  • the force required to hold the air around the earth

  • At the Earth’s surface the atmospheric pressure is 101,300 pascals or newtons.


Boyle’s law explains how pressure and volume are related.


Boyle’s Law states

  • 1. as the pressure of gas increases, its volume decreases proportionately.

  • 2. as the pressure of gas decreases, its volume increases proportionately.


Formula for Boyle’s law

  • P1 = initial pressure V1 = initial volume

  • P2 = new pressure V2 = new volume

  • P1 V1 = P2 V2


Example

  • Suppose 5 L of air at atmospheric pressure(101.3 Kilopascals) is compressed in a 0.5 L aerosol can. What is the pressure of the compressed air in the can?

  • Work the problem


HOMEWORK:

  • Compare and contrast Charles’s law and Boyle’s Law


Viscosity of Fluids


Viscosity:

  • 1. Measure of a materials resistance to flow.

  • 2. Determined by the siae and shape of the molecules


Temperature and Viscosity

  • As a liquid gets warmer its viscosity decreases.

  • As a gas gets warmer its viscosity increases.


HOMEWORK:

  • P. 307 Problems 1-3

  • Honors 1-5


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