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Blood PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Blood. How much blood do you have?. Adults have ~5 liters Blood = 8% body weight. What is in your blood?. What types of cells?. Healthy Red Blood Smear. Red Blood Cells. Biconcave disks. How RBC’s pick up oxygen. Oxygen will bind to hemoglobin when RBC’s move through lungs

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How much blood do you have?

  • Adults have ~5 liters

  • Blood = 8% body weight

What is in your blood?

What types of cells?

Healthy Red Blood Smear

Red Blood Cells

Biconcave disks

How RBC’s pick up oxygen

Oxygen will bind to hemoglobin when RBC’s move through lungs

This occurs because of the high partial pressure in the “vessels” of the lungs

Anemic Red Blood Cells

Sickle Cell Anemia

When antibodies bind to foreign cells, blood will clump = agglutination

Why is this a problem?

Where do blood cells come from?

Function of WBC’s

  • Granulocytes

    • Neutrophils (first WBC to arrive at infection site; phagocytosis)

    • Eosinophils (moderate allergic reactions and defend against parasitic worms)

    • Basophils (release histamine to promote inflammation)

Function of WBCs

  • Monocytes (macrophages)

    • Phagocytosis of bacteria, dead cells, debris

  • Lymphocytes (T and B cells)

    • T cells directly attack foreign cells

    • B cells produce antibodies

Most cells have carbohydrate or protein signals on their surface

  • Called antigens

  • Different people have different antigens on their RBCs because of their genes

People do not only have A/B antigens on red blood cells

  • Rhesus Factor = RBC antigen

  • People will have the factor or not, therefore you can be Rh + or Rh –

  • Antibodies exist to recognize these antigens

Most and Least Common Blood types

  • O+ is the most common blood type in U.S.

  • AB- is the least common blood type in the U.S.

Platelets start the clotting cascade

  • Damaged tissue releases signals (clotting factors) into blood

  • Because of clotting factors, platelets bind to damaged site

  • Platelets release prothrombrin (inactive enzyme)

  • Prothrombrin converted to thrombrin

  • Thrombrin converts fibrinogen to fibrin

What does fibrin?

  • Forms a sticky meshwork that adheres to more platelets and RBC’s

  • This mesh of cells and proteins = clot

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