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The “ISMS”. Nationalism. Nationalism incorporated culture into music. Until now, French, German, and Italian music dominated. RUSSIA. THE MIGHTY FIVE Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908) Wrote “Scheherazade” and “ Cappriccio Espagnol ” Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881)

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nationalism
Nationalism
  • Nationalism incorporated culture into music.
    • Until now, French, German, and Italian music dominated.
russia
RUSSIA

THE MIGHTY FIVE

  • Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908)
    • Wrote “Scheherazade” and “CappriccioEspagnol”
  • Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881)
  • Alexander Borodin (1833-1887)
  • Cesar Cui (1835-1918)
  • Mily Balakirev (1837-1910)
the mighty five
THE MIGHTY FIVE
  • Wanted to promote Russian music
  • Used native instruments, folklore, legends, history, and folksongs.

The Mighty Five EXCLUDED Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) because he was too cosmopolitan.

tchaikovsky
Tchaikovsky
  • Composed The Nutcracker, Swan Lake, 1812 Overture
slide7

Impressionism avoids clear lines, is blurred, and subtle.

It is connected to art – impressionistic paintings by Monet, van Gogh, etc.

impressionism in france
Impressionism in france
  • Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
    • Born in Paris, France
    • Studied piano and composition at the Paris Conservatory
  • Maurice Ravel (1875-1937)
    • Studied composition at the Paris Conservatory
    • Was denied the Prix de Rome FOUR times and was outraged
    • Drove the ambulance at the front lines of WWI
    • Friends with George Gershwin (jazz influence)
more isms
More “isms”
  • Neoclassicism
    • New music inspired by the Baroque and Classical periods
igor stravinsky
Igor stravinsky

(1882-1971)

Born in St. Petersburg, Russia

Father was a bass in the St. Petersburg opera, but urged Stravinsky to pursue a more practical career.

Stravinsky studied law, then composition at the St. Petersburg Conservatory with Rimsky-Korsakov.

stravinsky
Stravinsky
  • Composed for the Ballet Russe (important ballet company in Russia)
  • Escaped to Switzerland during the war
  • 1920 – Lived in France
  • 1939 – WWII (death of his daughter, wife, and mother)
    • Moved to the US to lecture at Harvard
    • After 1 year, he moved to LA, became a US citized in 1945.
  • 1969 – Moved to NYC (died there)
important compositions
Important compositions
  • Wrote many ballets including:
    • Rite of Spring
    • Firebird
expressionism
Expressionism
  • Atonal Music
  • Rejection of Impressionism
  • Expressed one’s “inner world” as described by Freud
  • Main Composer was Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)
arnold schoenberg 1874 1951
Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)
  • Born in Vienna
  • Violin, Composed
  • He was self-taught
  • Served in WWI
  • Known for his 12 tone method – atonal, used 12 note tone rows
  • 1925 – Professor at Berlin Academy of the Arts
  • Compositions include string music, operas, piano music; “PierrotLunaire”
aleatoric or chance music
Aleatoric or Chance music
  • Everyday sounds as music
  • Never the same twice
  • John Cage – wrote a piece called 4 min 33 sec
american music
American music
  • George Gershwin (1898-1937)
    • Russian-Jewish immigrant parents
    • Born in Brooklyn, NY
    • Excelled in sports
    • 1910 – started piano lessons
    • Jobs – earned $15/week playing piano and was a song plugger for Remick Music Co.
    • Compositions – musical theater and jazz
      • Porgy & Bess, Rhapsody in Blue, I Got Rhythm
george gershwin
George Gershwin

“I Got Rhythm”

american music1
American Music
  • Aaron Copland (1900-1990)
    • Born Brooklyn, NY
    • Russian-Jewish Parents
    • Studied music as a child, then in Paris
    • 1924 – Returned to the US
    • Wanted to compose music that would be identified as “Americana” and appeal to a variety of audiences
    • Used Jazz and Folk Songs in his music
    • “American Nationalism”
    • Compositions include: Rodeo, Appalachain Spring, Fanfare for the Common Man, Billy the Kid
american music2
American Music
  • Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990)
    • Born in Massachusets
    • Parents were Russian Immigrants
    • Age 10 – piano, Age 13 – First piano recital and barmitzvah (dad gave him a baby grand piano)
    • Music major at Harvard
    • Met Aaron Copland (composition advisor)
    • Studied at Curtis Institute in Philly (PA)
    • Conductor of the NY Philharmonic and substitute conductor at Carnegie Hall
    • Wrote West Side Story, ballets, Candide
    • Died of cancer (smoker) in NYC in 1990
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