The isms
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The “ISMS”. Nationalism. Nationalism incorporated culture into music. Until now, French, German, and Italian music dominated. RUSSIA. THE MIGHTY FIVE Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908) Wrote “Scheherazade” and “ Cappriccio Espagnol ” Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881)

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The “ISMS”

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The isms

The “ISMS”


Nationalism

Nationalism

  • Nationalism incorporated culture into music.

    • Until now, French, German, and Italian music dominated.


Russia

RUSSIA

THE MIGHTY FIVE

  • Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908)

    • Wrote “Scheherazade” and “CappriccioEspagnol”

  • Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881)

  • Alexander Borodin (1833-1887)

  • Cesar Cui (1835-1918)

  • Mily Balakirev (1837-1910)


The mighty five

THE MIGHTY FIVE

  • Wanted to promote Russian music

  • Used native instruments, folklore, legends, history, and folksongs.

    The Mighty Five EXCLUDED Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) because he was too cosmopolitan.


Tchaikovsky

Tchaikovsky

  • Composed The Nutcracker, Swan Lake, 1812 Overture


Impressionism

Impressionism


The isms

Impressionism avoids clear lines, is blurred, and subtle.

It is connected to art – impressionistic paintings by Monet, van Gogh, etc.


Impressionism in france

Impressionism in france

  • Claude Debussy (1862-1918)

    • Born in Paris, France

    • Studied piano and composition at the Paris Conservatory

  • Maurice Ravel (1875-1937)

    • Studied composition at the Paris Conservatory

    • Was denied the Prix de Rome FOUR times and was outraged

    • Drove the ambulance at the front lines of WWI

    • Friends with George Gershwin (jazz influence)


More isms

More “isms”

  • Neoclassicism

    • New music inspired by the Baroque and Classical periods


Igor stravinsky

Igor stravinsky

(1882-1971)

Born in St. Petersburg, Russia

Father was a bass in the St. Petersburg opera, but urged Stravinsky to pursue a more practical career.

Stravinsky studied law, then composition at the St. Petersburg Conservatory with Rimsky-Korsakov.


Stravinsky

Stravinsky

  • Composed for the Ballet Russe (important ballet company in Russia)

  • Escaped to Switzerland during the war

  • 1920 – Lived in France

  • 1939 – WWII (death of his daughter, wife, and mother)

    • Moved to the US to lecture at Harvard

    • After 1 year, he moved to LA, became a US citized in 1945.

  • 1969 – Moved to NYC (died there)


Important compositions

Important compositions

  • Wrote many ballets including:

    • Rite of Spring

    • Firebird


Expressionism

Expressionism

  • Atonal Music

  • Rejection of Impressionism

  • Expressed one’s “inner world” as described by Freud

  • Main Composer was Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)


Arnold schoenberg 1874 1951

Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)

  • Born in Vienna

  • Violin, Composed

  • He was self-taught

  • Served in WWI

  • Known for his 12 tone method – atonal, used 12 note tone rows

  • 1925 – Professor at Berlin Academy of the Arts

  • Compositions include string music, operas, piano music; “PierrotLunaire”


Aleatoric or chance music

Aleatoric or Chance music

  • Everyday sounds as music

  • Never the same twice

  • John Cage – wrote a piece called 4 min 33 sec


American music

American music

  • George Gershwin (1898-1937)

    • Russian-Jewish immigrant parents

    • Born in Brooklyn, NY

    • Excelled in sports

    • 1910 – started piano lessons

    • Jobs – earned $15/week playing piano and was a song plugger for Remick Music Co.

    • Compositions – musical theater and jazz

      • Porgy & Bess, Rhapsody in Blue, I Got Rhythm


George gershwin

George Gershwin

“I Got Rhythm”


American music1

American Music

  • Aaron Copland (1900-1990)

    • Born Brooklyn, NY

    • Russian-Jewish Parents

    • Studied music as a child, then in Paris

    • 1924 – Returned to the US

    • Wanted to compose music that would be identified as “Americana” and appeal to a variety of audiences

    • Used Jazz and Folk Songs in his music

    • “American Nationalism”

    • Compositions include: Rodeo, Appalachain Spring, Fanfare for the Common Man, Billy the Kid


American music2

American Music

  • Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990)

    • Born in Massachusets

    • Parents were Russian Immigrants

    • Age 10 – piano, Age 13 – First piano recital and barmitzvah (dad gave him a baby grand piano)

    • Music major at Harvard

    • Met Aaron Copland (composition advisor)

    • Studied at Curtis Institute in Philly (PA)

    • Conductor of the NY Philharmonic and substitute conductor at Carnegie Hall

    • Wrote West Side Story, ballets, Candide

    • Died of cancer (smoker) in NYC in 1990


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