Teacher Feedback in Formative Classroom Assessment

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What is the role of teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment?. . . External Regulation. Internal Regulation. Butler
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Teacher Feedback in Formative Classroom Assessment

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1. Teacher Feedback in Formative Classroom Assessment Susan M. Brookhart Presented February 27, 2008 At the University of Calgary Lecture Series International Perspectives on Student Assessment

7. Role of teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment To provide information Relevant to the learning task Which the student perceives as information And uses for internal regulation of learning Cognitively, taking the next steps for improvement Motivationally, understanding his/her control over the learning

9. What kinds of feedback best? Provide information Relevant to the learning task Which the student perceives as information And uses for internal regulation of learning Cognitively, taking the next steps for improvement Motivationally, understanding his/her control over the learning

10. Feedback Strategies

11. Timing Immediate feedback for knowledge of facts (right/wrong) Slight delay for more comprehensive reviews of student thinking and processing Never delay feedback beyond when it would make a difference to students As often as is practical, for all major assignments

12. Timing Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, & Kulik (1991)

13. Amount Prioritize ? pick the most important point(s) Choose points that relate to major learning goals Consider student?s developmental level

14. Amount Kluger & DeNisi (1996) Sadler (1989)

15. Mode Best mode for the message ? would a comment in passing the student?s desk suffice? Conference needed? Interactive feedback (talking with the student) is best when possible Written feedback on written work or on assignment cover sheets Use demonstration if ?how to do something? is an issue or if student needs an example

16. Mode Evaluation vs. grading studies about ?written feedback? Modeling and social learning theory for demonstrations

17. Audience Individual feedback says ?The teacher values my learning? Group/class feedback works if most of the class missed the same concept on an assignment ? becomes an opportunity for reteaching

18. Audience Classroom management and differentiated instruction literature Johnston (2004) Bloom (1984)

19. Feedback Content (1)

20. Feedback Content (2)

21. Focus When possible, describe both the work and the process ? and their relationship Comment on student?s self-regulation if the comment will foster self-efficacy Avoid personal comments

22. Focus Hattie & Timperley (2007)

23. Function Describe Don?t judge

24. Function Ryan, Connell, & Deci (1985) Butler & Nisan (1986) Crooks (1988) Tunstall & Gipps (1996) Black & Wiliam (1998)

25. Comparison Use criterion-referenced feedback for giving information about the work itself Use self-referenced feedback for giving information about student processes or effort Use self-referenced feedback for unsuccessful learners who need to see how they are making progress, not how far they are from the goal

26. Comparison Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik, & Morgan (1991) Sadler (1989) Classroom environment or classroom structure studies Covington (1992) Ames & Archer (1988)

27. Valence Use positive comments that describe what is well done Accompany negative descriptions of the work with positive suggestions for improvement

28. Valence Typology of Teacher Feedback (Tunstall & Gipps, 1996, p. 394)

30. Clarity Use vocabulary and concepts the student will understand Tailor amount and content of feedback to student?s developmental level

31. Clarity Sadler (1989)

32. Specificity How ?specific? depends on the student and the task Feedback should be specific enough that the student knows what to do, but not so specific that it?s done for him/her Identify errors or types of errors, but correcting every one (e.g., copyediting or supplying right answers) doesn?t leave the student anything to do

33. Specificity Kluger & DeNisi (1996) Sadler (1989)

34. Tone Choose words that communicate respect for the student and the work Choose words that position the student as the agent Choose words that cause students to think or wonder

35. Tone Johnston (2004) Covington (1992)

36. Conclusion What is the role of teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment? Part of the external regulation of learning Feedback is what the teacher does but in the end what matters is what the student does The role of feedback is to present students with the means, motive, and opportunity for internal regulation of learning.

37. Conclusion What kinds of feedback are most effective? Discussion of research on feedback (including some major reviews) and other relevant literature in light of the realities of classroom practice Classify findings into choices for teachers about feedback strategies and feedback content

38. Conclusion How to Give Good Feedback, coming out in September, 2008, ASCD Academic literature review, this lecture brookhart@duq.edu


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