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Teacher Feedback in Formative Classroom Assessment


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Teacher Feedback in Formative Classroom Assessment. Susan M. Brookhart Presented February 27, 2008 At the University of Calgary Lecture Series International Perspectives on Student Assessment. What is the role of teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment?. External Regulation.

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Teacher Feedback in Formative Classroom Assessment

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Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment

Teacher Feedback in Formative Classroom Assessment

Susan M. Brookhart

Presented February 27, 2008

At the University of Calgary Lecture Series

International Perspectives on Student Assessment


Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment

What is the role of teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment?


Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment

External Regulation

Internal Regulation


Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment

Butler & Winne, 1995, p. 248


Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment

Greene &

Azevedo,

2007


Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment

Teacher Feedback

External Regulation

Student Use of Feedback

Internal Regulation


Role of teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment

Role of teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment

  • To provide information

  • Relevant to the learning task

  • Which the student perceives as information

  • And uses for internal regulation of learning

    • Cognitively, taking the next steps for improvement

    • Motivationally, understanding his/her control over the learning


Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment

What kinds of feedback are most effective?


What kinds of feedback best

What kinds of feedback best…

  • Provide information

  • Relevant to the learning task

  • Which the student perceives as information

  • And uses for internal regulation of learning

    • Cognitively, taking the next steps for improvement

    • Motivationally, understanding his/her control over the learning


Feedback strategies

Feedback Strategies


Timing

Timing

  • Immediate feedback for knowledge of facts (right/wrong)

  • Slight delay for more comprehensive reviews of student thinking and processing

  • Never delay feedback beyond when it would make a difference to students

  • As often as is practical, for all major assignments


Timing1

Timing

  • Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, & Kulik (1991)


Amount

Amount

  • Prioritize – pick the most important point(s)

  • Choose points that relate to major learning goals

  • Consider student’s developmental level


Amount1

Amount

  • Kluger & DeNisi (1996)

  • Sadler (1989)


Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment

Mode

  • Best mode for the message – would a comment in passing the student’s desk suffice? Conference needed?

  • Interactive feedback (talking with the student) is best when possible

  • Written feedback on written work or on assignment cover sheets

  • Use demonstration if “how to do something” is an issue or if student needs an example


Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment

Mode

  • Evaluation vs. grading studies about “written feedback”

  • Modeling and social learning theory for demonstrations


Audience

Audience

  • Individual feedback says “The teacher values my learning”

  • Group/class feedback works if most of the class missed the same concept on an assignment – becomes an opportunity for reteaching


Audience1

Audience

  • Classroom management and differentiated instruction literature

  • Johnston (2004)

  • Bloom (1984)


Feedback content 1

Feedback Content (1)


Feedback content 2

Feedback Content (2)


Focus

Focus

  • When possible, describe both the work and the process – and their relationship

  • Comment on student’s self-regulation if the comment will foster self-efficacy

  • Avoid personal comments


Focus1

Focus

  • Hattie & Timperley (2007)


Function

Function

  • Describe

  • Don’t judge


Function1

Function

  • Ryan, Connell, & Deci (1985)

  • Butler & Nisan (1986)

  • Crooks (1988)

  • Tunstall & Gipps (1996)

  • Black & Wiliam (1998)


Comparison

Comparison

  • Use criterion-referenced feedback for giving information about the work itself

  • Use self-referenced feedback for giving information about student processes or effort

  • Use self-referenced feedback for unsuccessful learners who need to see how they are making progress, not how far they are from the goal


Comparison1

Comparison

  • Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik, & Morgan (1991)

  • Sadler (1989)

  • Classroom environment or classroom structure studies

  • Covington (1992)

  • Ames & Archer (1988)


Valence

Valence

  • Use positive comments that describe what is well done

  • Accompany negative descriptions of the work with positive suggestions for improvement


Valence1

Valence

  • Typology of Teacher Feedback (Tunstall & Gipps, 1996, p. 394)


Clarity

Clarity

  • Use vocabulary and concepts the student will understand

  • Tailor amount and content of feedback to student’s developmental level


Clarity1

Clarity

  • Sadler (1989)


Specificity

Specificity

  • How “specific” depends on the student and the task

  • Feedback should be specific enough that the student knows what to do, but not so specific that it’s done for him/her

  • Identify errors or types of errors, but correcting every one (e.g., copyediting or supplying right answers) doesn’t leave the student anything to do


Specificity1

Specificity

  • Kluger & DeNisi (1996)

  • Sadler (1989)


Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment

Tone

  • Choose words that communicate respect for the student and the work

  • Choose words that position the student as the agent

  • Choose words that cause students to think or wonder


Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment

Tone

  • Johnston (2004)

  • Covington (1992)


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • What is the role of teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment?

    • Part of the external regulation of learning

    • Feedback is what the teacher does but in the end what matters is what the student does

    • The role of feedback is to present students with the means, motive, and opportunity for internal regulation of learning.


Conclusion1

Conclusion

  • What kinds of feedback are most effective?

    • Discussion of research on feedback (including some major reviews) and other relevant literature in light of the realities of classroom practice

    • Classify findings into choices for teachers about feedback strategies and feedback content


Conclusion2

Conclusion

  • How to Give Good Feedback, coming out in September, 2008, ASCD

  • Academic literature review, this lecture

  • brookhart@duq.edu