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Teacher Feedback in Formative Classroom Assessment






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Teacher Feedback in Formative Classroom Assessment. Susan M. Brookhart Presented February 27, 2008 At the University of Calgary Lecture Series International Perspectives on Student Assessment. What is the role of teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment?. External Regulation.
Teacher Feedback in Formative Classroom Assessment

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Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessmentSlide 1

Teacher Feedback in Formative Classroom Assessment

Susan M. Brookhart

Presented February 27, 2008

At the University of Calgary Lecture Series

International Perspectives on Student Assessment

Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessmentSlide 2

What is the role of teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment?

Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessmentSlide 3

External Regulation

Internal Regulation

Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessmentSlide 4

Butler & Winne, 1995, p. 248

Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessmentSlide 5

Greene &

Azevedo,

2007

Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessmentSlide 6

Teacher Feedback

External Regulation

Student Use of Feedback

Internal Regulation

Role of teacher feedback in formative classroom assessmentSlide 7

Role of teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment

  • To provide information

  • Relevant to the learning task

  • Which the student perceives as information

  • And uses for internal regulation of learning

    • Cognitively, taking the next steps for improvement

    • Motivationally, understanding his/her control over the learning

Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessmentSlide 8

What kinds of feedback are most effective?

What kinds of feedback bestSlide 9

What kinds of feedback best…

  • Provide information

  • Relevant to the learning task

  • Which the student perceives as information

  • And uses for internal regulation of learning

    • Cognitively, taking the next steps for improvement

    • Motivationally, understanding his/her control over the learning

Feedback strategiesSlide 10

Feedback Strategies

TimingSlide 11

Timing

  • Immediate feedback for knowledge of facts (right/wrong)

  • Slight delay for more comprehensive reviews of student thinking and processing

  • Never delay feedback beyond when it would make a difference to students

  • As often as is practical, for all major assignments

Timing1Slide 12

Timing

  • Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, & Kulik (1991)

AmountSlide 13

Amount

  • Prioritize – pick the most important point(s)

  • Choose points that relate to major learning goals

  • Consider student’s developmental level

Amount1Slide 14

Amount

  • Kluger & DeNisi (1996)

  • Sadler (1989)

Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessmentSlide 15

Mode

  • Best mode for the message – would a comment in passing the student’s desk suffice? Conference needed?

  • Interactive feedback (talking with the student) is best when possible

  • Written feedback on written work or on assignment cover sheets

  • Use demonstration if “how to do something” is an issue or if student needs an example

Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessmentSlide 16

Mode

  • Evaluation vs. grading studies about “written feedback”

  • Modeling and social learning theory for demonstrations

AudienceSlide 17

Audience

  • Individual feedback says “The teacher values my learning”

  • Group/class feedback works if most of the class missed the same concept on an assignment – becomes an opportunity for reteaching

Audience1Slide 18

Audience

  • Classroom management and differentiated instruction literature

  • Johnston (2004)

  • Bloom (1984)

Feedback content 1Slide 19

Feedback Content (1)

Feedback content 2Slide 20

Feedback Content (2)

FocusSlide 21

Focus

  • When possible, describe both the work and the process – and their relationship

  • Comment on student’s self-regulation if the comment will foster self-efficacy

  • Avoid personal comments

Focus1Slide 22

Focus

  • Hattie & Timperley (2007)

FunctionSlide 23

Function

  • Describe

  • Don’t judge

Function1Slide 24

Function

  • Ryan, Connell, & Deci (1985)

  • Butler & Nisan (1986)

  • Crooks (1988)

  • Tunstall & Gipps (1996)

  • Black & Wiliam (1998)

ComparisonSlide 25

Comparison

  • Use criterion-referenced feedback for giving information about the work itself

  • Use self-referenced feedback for giving information about student processes or effort

  • Use self-referenced feedback for unsuccessful learners who need to see how they are making progress, not how far they are from the goal

Comparison1Slide 26

Comparison

  • Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik, & Morgan (1991)

  • Sadler (1989)

  • Classroom environment or classroom structure studies

  • Covington (1992)

  • Ames & Archer (1988)

ValenceSlide 27

Valence

  • Use positive comments that describe what is well done

  • Accompany negative descriptions of the work with positive suggestions for improvement

Valence1Slide 28

Valence

  • Typology of Teacher Feedback (Tunstall & Gipps, 1996, p. 394)

ClaritySlide 30

Clarity

  • Use vocabulary and concepts the student will understand

  • Tailor amount and content of feedback to student’s developmental level

Clarity1Slide 31

Clarity

  • Sadler (1989)

SpecificitySlide 32

Specificity

  • How “specific” depends on the student and the task

  • Feedback should be specific enough that the student knows what to do, but not so specific that it’s done for him/her

  • Identify errors or types of errors, but correcting every one (e.g., copyediting or supplying right answers) doesn’t leave the student anything to do

Specificity1Slide 33

Specificity

  • Kluger & DeNisi (1996)

  • Sadler (1989)

Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessmentSlide 34

Tone

  • Choose words that communicate respect for the student and the work

  • Choose words that position the student as the agent

  • Choose words that cause students to think or wonder

Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessmentSlide 35

Tone

  • Johnston (2004)

  • Covington (1992)

ConclusionSlide 36

Conclusion

  • What is the role of teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment?

    • Part of the external regulation of learning

    • Feedback is what the teacher does but in the end what matters is what the student does

    • The role of feedback is to present students with the means, motive, and opportunity for internal regulation of learning.

Conclusion1Slide 37

Conclusion

  • What kinds of feedback are most effective?

    • Discussion of research on feedback (including some major reviews) and other relevant literature in light of the realities of classroom practice

    • Classify findings into choices for teachers about feedback strategies and feedback content

Conclusion2Slide 38

Conclusion

  • How to Give Good Feedback, coming out in September, 2008, ASCD

  • Academic literature review, this lecture

  • brookhart@duq.edu


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