Smallholder timber marketing a kenyan experience
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Smallholder Timber Marketing: A Kenyan Experience. FAO/ICRAF/GoK multi-stakeholder programme International Workshop on small holder timber production . 29 th November- 1 st December 2004 Christine Holding Anyonge (FAO) Sammy Carsan, Tony Simons (ICRAF) Paul Njuguna (GoK).

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Smallholder Timber Marketing: A Kenyan Experience

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Smallholder timber marketing a kenyan experience

Smallholder Timber Marketing: A Kenyan Experience

FAO/ICRAF/GoK multi-stakeholder programme

International Workshop on small holder timber production. 29th November- 1st December 2004

Christine Holding Anyonge (FAO)

Sammy Carsan, Tony Simons (ICRAF)

Paul Njuguna (GoK)


Smallholder timber marketing a kenyan experience

Why small-holder timber?

  • logging bans in natural forests and plantations

  • wood supply crisis govt. zero rated imports & policy change

  • 1% per capita increase in wood demand 1996-2000

  • consumer preference for sustainable grown timber

  • large plantations difficult to site in many countries

  • risks of large plantations (e.g. fire) & re-planting backlogs

  • experience developing from out grower, group schemes

  • poplars in India, Eucalyptus in South Africa, hardwoods in Ghana


Smallholder timber marketing a kenyan experience

Smallholder Timber R&D Activities

  • Research activities run alongside and interface with policy/advocacy and development activities

    • PRA’s and preliminary surveys

    • Timber businesses census - Eastern Mt. Kenya

    • Sample survey for timber business market chains

    • On farm timber tree inventories

    • Farm planning for timber production- HH’s survey

    • Collate secondary data on current national market for timber, demand and consumer characteristics

    • Corroborate information with other related timber out grower and certification programmes (e.g. private sector IIED, CIFOR, ICRAF and FAO)


Smallholder timber marketing a kenyan experience

Stakeholder Activities Step by Step…

  • Analyze existing situation

    • Identify target group: PRA’s, farmer surveys, local baraza

    • Identify products for target group.

    • Rapid farm surveys to catalogue the richness of diversity, its distribution and potential economic value

    • Raise awareness on the benefits of working together (collective action)

  • Analyze policy & legislation governing tree business.

    • Stakeholder consultations

    • Advocacy activities

    • Conduct chain surveys (know constraints)

  • On farm tree domestication

    • Germplasm source, Niche, Diversity &Tree management


Smallholder timber marketing a kenyan experience

Smallholder Timber Marketing in Meru Comprising of a Multi-stakeholder System.

Stakeholder profiles

Capacity building needs, track record, interest

Strategic alliances, partnerships, collaborators etc

Feed back mechanism: illegal logging & sourcing

Prov. Adm.(Chiefs Act)

checks logging of indigenous trees

Organizing barazas.

Forest Dep't., KEFRI.

Recovery rates

Movement permits

Enforcing bans

F

F

2

1

GOK, FAO & ICRAF

Extension, Policy & Research

1

2

1

2

F

Formal & informal Meetings

Timber & F/wood Industry

timber yard owners

mobile saw benchers

tea factories & other firewood

outlets

Farmer Groups

small holder timber

firewood sale

on farm nurseries

input to farmer groups and feedback mechanism

1, F

input to the timber & fuel wood industry

2


Smallholder timber marketing a kenyan experience

PRAResults…..

  • Gender - men are decision makers on choice of species, marketing & utilization

  • Important farm enterprises: cash crop (coffee, cotton, Tea), dairy &, subsistence maize, beans & groundnuts

  • Fuelwood and timber in AF: Grevillea, Vitex and Cordia

  • Knowledge gaps on tree mgt.

  • Poor market information- entry points, niches

  • low prices for tree and tree products,

  • poor conditions of roads, lack of capital hindered value addition

  • Wood handling, preservation & storage concerns


Smallholder timber marketing a kenyan experience

Initial survey findings…

  • Farmers:

  • Formerly used timber domestically- did not consider tree on farm as an enterprises like other farm enterprises

  • Now sell trees to neighbours or traders who may come to the farms

  • Trees sold to any willing buyer at an agreed price usually below the mkt. price- had poor mkt informaion

  • Poor knowledge on marketing, silvicultural techniques, mensuration, valuation


Smallholder timber marketing a kenyan experience

Initial Survey findings….

  • Saw millers

  • Not concerned with input volumes (difficult to ascertain volumes)

  • More knowledgeable than

    farmers on tree valuation & mensuration

  • Have problems in acquiring

    timber/logs from farmers

  • Need information, equipment & training for enhanced conversion and better tree utilization

  • Require information on existing

    supply of trees and logs on farm

  • Need for value adding of timber


Smallholder timber marketing a kenyan experience

Core Research Components

  • Timber Business Census

  • Recorded principle characteristics of 252 businesses on Eastern edge of Mount Kenya

  • All business, no matter previous sourcing were currently sourcing from farm

  • Census identified type and size of business species utilized, stock, customers, and trends in sourcing and demand


Smallholder timber marketing a kenyan experience

  • Dimensions of market chain analysis (filiere)

  • Technical: technology, skills, conversion rates, technical constraint and bottlenecks; qualitative and quantitative production

  • Institutional: actors direct and indirect, relationships between actors; objectives of different costs – brokers, microfinance; transporters etc.

  • Economic net margins for each operator ; added value at each stage of the chain; proportion of final price amongst actors;

  • Resource sustainability: combines the result of the market chain surveys and the on farm timber inventories to assess e.g. sustainability of on farm production under current practices.


Smallholder timber marketing a kenyan experience

Indicative market network for farm sourced timber

Farms and households

Power saw operatorSawmill functions

wastages onCutting and crosscuttingrecoveries.

Casual labour (loading)

Tractors on farm (splitting)

Tractor/lorries for transport

Sawmill functions(splitting)

Timber yard and furniture shops

Customer characterization by product

Technical

Economic

Institutional


Smallholder timber marketing a kenyan experience

  • Farm planning for timber production – HH Survey

  • Tree planting decision points (mgt, expansion, substitution, replacement)

  • Sourcing of quality and quantity of preferred Germplasm

  • Species imbalances addressed: >spp. in lowland than upper midlands, farm practices

  • Farm planning for timber: land sub-division, planting niches identified, tree mgt.


Smallholder timber marketing a kenyan experience

  • Over 23 tree species are preferences for timber and fuel wood.

  • avg 140 Grevillea trees/farm

  • There trends of use of certain species e.g Grevillea, Eucalyptus, Cassia

  • Trend to increased planting of exotics than indigenous

  • Choices of harvesting are in response to market signals


Smallholder timber marketing a kenyan experience

Expected Research outcomes….

  • Data to show nature of businesses, raw material sourcing & demand, size, preferences, distance, customer characteristics,

  • Timber businesses preferences from future farm production

  • Recommendations on preferred species to plant from the perspective of farmers preferences, species diversity and markets. -results to input into national extension programmes

  • Methodologies developed for market chain analysis and assessing on farm timber resource sustainability

  • Producers associations capacity building - increased information access, production and marketing skills


Smallholder timber marketing a kenyan experience

ConcludingRemarks….

  • Trees on farm act as buffers to smallholders in times of hardships, however, they lack the necessary knowledge, capital or legal rights to exploit market opportunities

  • Opportunities to build capacity on farmer-led market analysis & dvpt

  • Communities are heterogeneous, made up of individual producers who have different tree production objectives. These objectives, may occasionally conflict along gender issues, wealth class, political elite etc

  • To achieve desired impact, recognize that the relative success of such programmes depend to a great extent on political and economic forces well beyond the control of any local initiative

  • On farm tree growing and rural development can be compatible and mutually beneficial in enhancing farmer livelihoods and preserving landscape biodiversity.


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