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Climate. What is climate Climate Classification Climatic Changes Human Influence on Climate. Chap. 14. Objectives. What is Climate – 14.1. describe different types of climate data explain why climates vary. Climate. Long-term weather patterns of an area. Climate.

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climate

Climate

What is climate

Climate Classification

Climatic Changes

Human Influence on Climate

Chap. 14

what is climate 14 1

Objectives

What is Climate – 14.1

  • describe different types of climate data
  • explain why climates vary
slide3

Climate

Long-term weather patterns of an area

slide4

Climate

  • Climate has changed over the history of time
slide5

Climate

  • Climate has changed over the history of time
  • Climate describes:
slide6

Climate

  • Climate has changed over the history of time
  • Climate describes:
  • Temperatures (high, low, average)
slide7

Climate

  • Climate has changed over the history of time
  • Climate describes:
  • Temperatures (high, low, average)
  • Precipitation
slide8

Climate

  • Climate has changed over the history of time
  • Climate describes:
  • Temperatures (high, low, average)
  • Precipitation
  • Wind speed & direction
slide9

Climate

  • Climate has changed over the history of time
  • Climate describes:
  • Temperatures (high, low, average)
  • Precipitation
  • Wind speed & direction
  • Humidity
slide10

Climate

  • Climate has changed over the history of time
  • Climate describes:
  • Temperatures (high, low, average)
  • Precipitation
  • Wind speed & direction
  • Humidity
  • Pressure
slide11

Climate

  • Climate has changed over the history of time
  • Climate describes:
  • Normals
slide12

Climate

  • Climate has changed over the history of time
  • Climate describes:
  • Normals
  • Data may be collected at a location outside city
slide13

Climate

  • Climate has changed over the history of time
  • Climate describes:
  • Normals
  • Data may be collected at a location outside city
  • Data reflects average values, not necessarily usual weather conditions.
slide14

Climate

  • Factors affecting climate
slide15

Climate

  • Factors affecting climate
  • Latitude
  • Topography
  • Closeness to water
  • Global wind patterns
  • Ocean currents
  • Air masses
slide16

Climate

  • Factors affecting climate

Explain the difference between S.F. and Minneapolis?

climate classification 14 2

Objectives

Climate Classification - 14.2

  • describe the criteria used to classify climates
  • compare and contrast different climates.

Submitted by: MCAS Iwakuni

slide21

Koeppen Classification

Classifies climates based on average temperature and precipitation, taking into consideration vegetation.

slide22

Koeppen Classification

  • Tropical climate

Hawaii - http://www.georgedonna.org/Hawaiindx.htm

Constant high temperatures and lots of precipitation, the location of many rain forests.

slide23

Koeppen Classification

  • Tropical climate
  • Dry climate

Gobi –

http://www.arcangeloni.com/new/mongolia_pictures.shtml

30% of all land, location of many deserts (Sahara and Gobi), evaporation exceeds precipitation.

slide25

Koeppen Classification

  • Mild climate
  • Humid subtropical

Florida–

http://www.marianna-online.com/marianna/index.asp

Subtropical high pressure systems bring warm, muggy summers and dry cool winters.

slide26

Koeppen Classification

  • Mild climate
  • Humid subtropical
  • Marine west coast

Oregon

Constant flow of air from ocean brings mild winters and cool summers.

slide27

Koeppen Classification

  • Mild climate
  • Humid subtropical
  • Marine west coast
  • Mediterranean

Italy - http://www.camigliano.it/eng/landscape.htm

Warm summers due to proximity to warm ocean water.

slide28

Koeppen Classification

  • Continental climate

Temperature changes can be extreme from summer to winter, site of tropical and polar air mass collisions.

slide29

Koeppen Classification

  • Continental climate
  • Warm summer
  • Cool summer
  • Subarctic
slide30

Koeppen Classification

  • Polar climate

Year-around cold temperatures (warmest month average is less than 50ºF).

slide31

Koeppen Classification

  • Polar climate
  • Tundra

Tundra - http://www.bergoiata.org/fe/national-parks-american/10.htm

Little precipitation, many months of cold temperature, short growing season.

slide32

Koeppen Classification

  • Polar climate
  • Tundra
  • Ice Caps

Penny Ice Cap - http://www.wholey.net/Auyuittuq/Auyuittuq.html

Form near the poles as a result of the small amount of solar radiation there.

slide33

Koeppen Classification

  • Highlands

Mt. Everest - http://www.muvaki.de/Tibet/

Unique climates due to extremely high elevations.

slide34

Microclimates

Localized climate that differs from the regional climate.

slide36

Microclimates

  • Factors
  • Man-made structures
slide37

Microclimates

  • Factors
  • Man-made structures
  • Elevation
slide38

Microclimates

  • Factors
  • Man-made structures
  • Elevation
  • Heat islands

Features that act to increase temperatures in a microclimate

climatic changes 14 3

Objectives

Climatic Changes – 14.3

  • distinguish among different types of climatic changes.
  • recognize why climatic changes occur.

Flood - http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/elnino/anatomy/origins.html

slide41

Ice Ages

Ice Age - http://www.worldbook.com

Periods of time in which ice/glaciers cover vast amounts of Earth’s surface and temperatures decrease

slide42

Ice Ages

  • Alternating periods of glaciation and interglacial intervals.
slide43

Ice Ages

  • Alternating periods of glaciation and interglacial intervals.
  • Most recent ice age ended about 10,000 ya.
slide45

Short-term Climatic Changes

  • Seasons

Short-term period of climate change as a result of variations in daylight, temperature and weather.

slide46

Short-term Climatic Changes

  • Seasons
  • Summer – the North pole is titled toward the sun and the N. hemisphere receives more solar radiation.
slide47

Short-term Climatic Changes

  • Seasons
  • Summer – the North pole is tilted toward the sun and the N. hemisphere receives more solar radiation.
  • Winter – the North pole is tiltedaway from the sun and the S. hemisphere receives more solar radiation.
slide48

Short-term Climatic Changes

  • Seasons
  • Spring and Autumn (Fall) both hemispheres experience equal solar radiation.
slide50

Short-term Climatic Changes

  • Seasons
  • El Niño
  • Causes
slide51

Short-term Climatic Changes

  • Seasons
  • El Niño
  • Causes
  • Change in tradewinds brings warm Pacific ocean water eastward.
slide52

Short-term Climatic Changes

  • Seasons
  • El Niño
  • Causes
  • Change in tradewinds brings warm Pacific ocean water eastward.
  • The energy from this warm water changes the jet stream, altering global weather.
slide53

Short-term Climatic Changes

  • Seasons
  • El Niño
  • Causes
  • Effects
slide54

Short-term Climatic Changes

  • Seasons
  • El Niño
  • Causes
  • Effects
  • Climate is altered in various locations.
slide55

Short-term Climatic Changes

  • Seasons
  • El Niño
  • Causes
  • Effects
  • Climate is altered in various locations.
  • Some dry climates receive more rain than normal.
slide56

Short-term Climatic Changes

  • Seasons
  • El Niño
  • Causes
  • Effects
  • Climate is altered in various locations.
  • Some dry climates receive more rain than normal.
  • Wet climates may experience droughts.
slide57

Short-term Climatic Changes

  • Seasons
  • El Niño
  • Causes
  • Effects
  • Climate is altered in various locations.
  • Some dry climates receive more rain than normal.
  • Wet climates may experience droughts.
  • There are fewer hurricanes and monsoons.
slide59

Natural Climate Change

  • Solar Activity: sunspots

Sunspots - http://theastropages.com/astroobjects/2000/20000306.htm

Large, dark, rapidly changing spots on the sun where solar radiation is blocked (possibly by magnetic field)

slide60

Natural Climate Change

  • Solar Activity: sunspots
  • Low sunspot activity linked to cooler temperatures by Maunder.
slide61

Natural Climate Change

  • Solar Activity: sunspots
  • Low sunspot activity linked to cooler temperatures by Maunder.
  • Chart
slide63

Natural Climate Change

  • Earth’s orbit
  • Varies between circular and elliptical orbit every 100,000 y.
slide64

Natural Climate Change

  • Earth’s orbit
  • Varies between circular and elliptical orbit every 100,000 y.
  • Circular orbit takes Earth farther from sun.
slide65

Natural Climate Change

  • Earth’s orbit
  • Difference in tilt every 40,000 y means cooler summers, and warmer winters (less snow melt).
slide66

Natural Climate Change

  • Earth’s wobble

A change in the direction the N. pole faces. Eventually climates will shift when this wobbles to new direction.

slide67

Natural Climate Change

  • Volcanic activity

Dust in the atmosphere can block solar radiation for several years, lowering temperatures.

slide70

Greenhouse Effect

The retention of heat in the atmosphere by gases that act like glass in a greenhouse.

slide71

Greenhouse Effect

  • Gases in the atmosphere absorb radiation. Water vapor, methane, & carbon dioxide.
slide72

Greenhouse Effect

  • Gases in the atmosphere absorb radiation. Water vapor, methane, & carbon dioxide.
  • The sun emits short wave radiation which penetrates the clouds.
slide73

Greenhouse Effect

  • Gases in the atmosphere absorb radiation. Water vapor, methane, & carbon dioxide.
  • The sun emits short wave radiation which penetrates the clouds.
  • The Earth emits long wave radiation which is trapped by greenhouse gases.
slide75

Global Warming

  • Too little greenhouse gases cause a cold environment.
slide76

Global Warming

  • Too little greenhouse gases cause a cold environment.
  • Too many greenhouse gases cause an increase in global temperatures.
slide77

Global Warming

  • Too little greenhouse gases cause a cold environment.
  • Too many greenhouse gases cause an increase in global temperatures.
  • Evidence indicates that average global temperatures are rising.
slide79

Global Warming

  • Causes
  • Anthropogenic – mankind’s activities are increasing greenhouse gases.
slide80

Global Warming

  • Causes
  • Anthropogenic – mankind’s activities are increasing greenhouse gases.
  • Natural – the Earth goes through natural fluctuations in global temperatures.
slide82

Human contributions

  • Biggest source of greenhouse gases is the combustion of ______ fuels.
slide83

Human contributions

  • Biggest source of greenhouse gases is the combustion of ______ fuels.
  • How do peoples’ activities affect global warming?
slide84

Human contributions

  • Biggest source of greenhouse gases is the combustion of ______ fuels.
  • How do peoples’ activities affect global warming?
  • Conserving energy at home/work.
slide85

Human contributions

  • Biggest source of greenhouse gases is the combustion of ______ fuels.
  • How do peoples’ activities affect global warming?
  • Conserving energy at home/work.
  • Car pooling to school/work.
slide86

Human contributions

  • Biggest source of greenhouse gases is the combustion of ______ fuels.
  • How do peoples’ activities affect global warming?
  • Conserving energy at home/work.
  • Car pooling to school/work.
  • Recycling paper, plastic, aluminum, etc.
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