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Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber. Chapter 1. Introduction to Computing and Engineering Problem Solving. Historical Perspective Recent Engineering Achievements Computing Systems Data Representation and Storage An Engineering Problem Solving Methodology. Charles Babbage

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Engineering problem solving with c etter ingber

Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber

Chapter 1

Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


Introduction to computing and engineering problem solving

Introduction to Computing and Engineering Problem Solving

  • Historical Perspective

  • Recent Engineering Achievements

  • Computing Systems

  • Data Representation and Storage

  • An Engineering Problem Solving Methodology

Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


Historical perspective

Charles Babbage

Analytical Engine

Augusta Ada Byron

Digital Computers

Historical Perspective

Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


Charles babbage esq 1792 1871

Charles Babbage, Esq. 1792-1871

  • English mathematician.

  • Designed the Analytical Engine in the early 1800s.

  • Published “Of the Analytical Engine” in 1864.

Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


Analytical engine

Analytical Engine

  • Designed to process base ten numbers.

  • Consisted of four parts:

    • Storage unit

    • Processing unit

    • Input device

    • Output device

Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


Analytical engine1

Analytical Engine

  • Luigi F. Menabrea, French engineer and mathematician, described Babbage’s vision of a machine capable of solving any problem using:

    • Inputs

    • Outputs

    • Programs written on punch cards

Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


Augusta ada byron 1815 1852

Augusta Ada Byron, 1815-1852

  • Wrote the English translation of Menabrea’s Sketch of the Analytical Engine.

  • Envisioned the multidisciplinary potential of the Analytical Engine.

  • Wrote detailed instructions for performing numerical computations using the Analytical Engine.

Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


Digital computers

Digital Computers

  • ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer)

    • Developed at Iowa State University between 1939 and 1942 by John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry.

    • Weighed 700 pounds.

    • Executed one instruction every 15 seconds.

Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


Digital computers1

Digital Computers

  • ENIAC(Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator)

    • Developed by research team lead by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert during the early 1940s.

    • Weighed 30 tons.

    • Executed hundreds of instructions every second.

Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


Digital computers2

Digital Computers

  • Intel Pentium 4 Processor.

    • Weighs < 16 ounces.

    • Executes trillions of instructions per second.

Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


Recent engineering achievements

Recent Engineering Achievements

Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


Recent engineering achievements1

Recent Engineering Achievements

  • Digital computers facilitate multidisciplinary engineering achievements that:

    • Improve our lives

    • Expanded the possibilities for our future.

  • Changing engineering environment requires engineers with:

    • Communication skills

    • Skills for working in interdisciplinary teams

    • An awareness of ethic issues and environmental concerns.

Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


Computing systems

Computer Hardware

Computer Software

Computing Systems

Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


Computing systems1

Computing Systems

  • A computing system is a complete working system that includes:

    • Hardware

    • Software

Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


Hardware

Hardware

  • Hardware refers to the physical parts off the computing system that have mass (ie they can actually be touched):

    • Computer

    • Display

    • Mouse

    • Printer

Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


Computer hardware

Computer Hardware

  • Jon von Neumann computing model

    • Input device

    • Output device

    • Memory Unit

    • CPU(Central Processing Unit) consisting of:

      • Control Unit

      • ALU(Arithmetic Logic Unit)

Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


Von neumann computing model

Von Neumann computing model

Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


Software

Software

  • Computer software refers to programs that reside and execute electronically on the hardware.

    • Compilers

      • Translate source code

  • Operating systems

    • Provide the HCI (Human Computer Interface)

  • Application programs

    • Provide problem solutions

  • Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    Hierarchy of computer languages

    Hierarchy of Computer Languages

    • Natural Language Processing

    • Cobol

    • Pascal

    • Java

    • C++

    • Assembler

    • Machine Language

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    Executing a c

    Executing a C++

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    Key terms

    Key Terms

    • Source Program

      • printable/Readable Program file

    • Object Program

      • nonprintable machine readable file

    • ExecutableProgram

      • nonprintable executable code

    • Syntax errors

      • reported by the compiler

    • Linker errors

      • reported by the linker

    • Execution/Run-time errors

      • reported by the operating system

    • Logic errors

      • not reported

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    Data representation and storage

    Number Systems

    Data Types and Storage

    Data representation and storage

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    Data representation and storage1

    Data Representation and Storage

    • Digital computers store information as a sequence of bits (binary digits).

    • The value or state of a bit at any given time can be 0 or 1 (off or on).

    • Data is stored as a sequence of bytes.

      • A byte is a sequence of 8 bits.

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    Data representation and storage memory diagram

    Data Representation and Storage:Memory Diagram

    Address Space = 8

    Word Size = 16

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    Data representation and storage2

    Data Representation and Storage

    • Right most bit is referred to as the least significant bit.

    • Left most bit is referred to as the most significant bit.

    • Value stored at address 000 is 00001010110111012 = 278110 But what does it represent?

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    Number systems

    Number Systems

    • Base ten number system

      • Ten decimal digits (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9)

      • Each digit multiplies a power of ten

    • Example:

      24510 = 2*102 + 4*101 + 5*100

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    Number systems1

    Number Systems

    • Base two (binary) number system

      • Two binary digits (0,1)

      • Each digit multiplies a power of two

    • Example:

      101102 = 1*24 + 0*23 + 1*22 + 1*21 + 0*20

      = 1*16 + 0*8 + 1*4 + 1*2 + 0*1

      = 16 + 0 + 4 + 2 + 0

      = 2210

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    Number systems2

    Number Systems

    • Base eight number system

      • Eight octal digits (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7)

      • Each digit multiplies a power of eight

    • Example:

      2458 = 2*82 + 4*81 + 5*80

      = 2*64 + 4*8 + 5*1

      = 128 + 32 + 5

      = 1658

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    Number systems3

    Number Systems

    • Base sixteen number system

      • Sixteen hex digits (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F)

      • Each digit multiplies a power of sixteen

    • Example:

      2FB16 = 2*162 + F*161 + B*160

      = 2*256 + F*16 + B*1

      = 512 + 240 + 11

      = 76310

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    Number systems practice

    Number Systems: Practice!

    • 1002 = ?8

    • 37168 = ?2

    • 1101001112 = ?10

    • 3A1B16 = ?2

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    Data types

    Data Types

    • Integer Data Type:

      • Often represented in 4 bytes (System Dependent)

      • Left most bit is reserved for the sign of the number

      • Remaining 31 bits represent the magnitude of the number.

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    Data types1

    Data Types

    • Representation of data affects the efficiency of arithmetic and logic operations.

    • For efficiency, negative integers are often represented in their 2’s complement form.

    • The 2’s complement of an integer is formed by negating all of the bits and adding one.

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    Example 2 s complement

    Example: 2’s Complement

    • Form the 2’s complement representation for the value -12710 assuming a word size of 8 for simplicity.

      12710 = 011111112

      Negate bits: 10000000

      Add 1:10000001

    • 2’s complement is 10000001

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    Example 2 s complement1

    Example: 2’s Complement

    • Add 127 to -127

      01111111

      +

      10000001

      = _______

      00000000

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    Data types2

    Data Types

    • Floating Point Data

      • Floating point types represent real numbers, such as 1.25, that include a decimal point.

      • Digits to the right of the decimal point form the fractional part of the number.

      • Digits to the left of the decimal point form the integral part of the number.

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    Practice floating point data

    Practice! Floating Point Data

    • Convert 12.2510 to binary.

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    An engineering problem solving methodology

    An engineering problem-solving methodology

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


    5 step problem solving methodology

    5 Step Problem Solving Methodology

    • State the problem clearly.

    • Describe the input and output.

    • Work a hand example.

    • Develop a solution.

    • Test your solution.

    Engineering Problem Solving with C++ second edition, J. ingber


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