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The Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning Heterocyclic Chemistry [SATLHC]: Operational Steps for Building Teaching Units in Heterocyclic Chemistry. A. F. M. Fahmy , J.J.Lagowski* Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry

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The Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning Heterocyclic Chemistry [SATLHC]:

Operational Steps for Building Teaching Units in Heterocyclic Chemistry

A. F. M. Fahmy, J.J.Lagowski*

Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry

Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, EGYPTE-mail:afmfahmy42@gmail.com

*University of Texas at Austin ,USA

Website:satlcentral.com

Feb.2013


  • If their is no Teaching Chemistry their is no Chemistry

  • Good chemistry teaching

excellent chemistry research


# Introduction

# SATL-Teaching Strategy.

# Difficulties in Learning Heterocyclic Chemistry.

# SATL-in Building Unites [General strategy].

# Scienario of Building unite on 5-Membered Heterocycles.

[Pyrrole – Furan – Thiophene]

  • # Conclusions.


  • INTRODUCTION:

  • -After the wide spread of the systematization in various activities including, tourism, economy, security, education,…etc,

  • and after globalization became a reality that we live.

  • -SATL became a must and Chemical Education Reform (CER)

  • has gained great importance internationally.

  • - SATL is a new way of teaching and learning, based on the idea that nowadays everything is related to everything globally.

  • -Students shouldn't learn isolated facts (by heart), but they should be able to connect concepts and facts in an internally logical context.


  • Taagepera and Noori (2000)tracked the development of student’s conceptual understanding of organic chemistry during a one-year sophomore course. They found that the

students knowledge base increased as expected, but their cognitive organization of the knowledge was surprisingly weak .

  • The authors concluded that instructors should spend more time making effective connections, helping students to construct a knowledge space based on general principles.

  • Pungente, and Badger 2003 stated that the primary goal of teaching introductory organic chemistry is to take students beyond the simple cognitive levels of knowledge and comprehension using synthesis and analysis – rather than rote memory.


  • Fahmy,A.F.M.(Egypt),andLagowski,J.J.(USA)(1998) suggested an educational process based on the application of “Systemics” named (SATL).

  • SATL-in Heterocyclic Chemistry was experimented successfully on the third year major chemistry students at Ain Shams University( 2004).

  • Why Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning ?

  • SATL helps students in the development of their mental framework with higher level of cognitive processes such as analysis and synthesis.


  • SATL helps learners in obtaining a deeper learning experience, improve their understanding, enhance their systemic thinking, and increasing their enthusiasm for learning chemistry, as well as other subjects.

  • SATL,will help students to understand interrelationships between concepts in a greater context.

  • SATL Helps teachers to teach and learners to learn.


  • What is the SATL?

  • - We mean an arrangement of concepts or issues through interacting systems in which all relationships between concepts and issues are made, clear up front, to the teacher and learner.

Fig:1a

LA

concept

concept

concept

concept

concept

Fig:1b

SA

concept

concept

concept


SD1

SD2

SD0

SDf

  • Systemic teaching strategy:[STS]

  • - we started teaching any unit by Systemic diagram (SD0) that has determined the starting point of the unit, and we ended with a final systemic diagram(SDf)and between both we crossover several Systemics.

Fig (2): Systemic teaching strategy


  • The systemic diagrams involved in teaching are

  • similar except that the number of known relationships

  • () and the unknown (?)ones as indicated in the Fig.2.

    • A list of SATLCmaterials were produced in Egypt

    • e.g.:SATLGeneral Chemistry for secondary schools. SATLAliphatic, Aromatic, Green chemistry and Heterocyclic Chemistry for University Level.

    - In this presentation, various examples of systemic heterocyclic teaching materials will be illustrated.


    Uses of SATL-in Building Unites:

    [ General Building Strategy ]

    In SATL building strategy of unites , we convert the linearly based unites in chemistry to systemically - based unites according to the following building strategy;

    First: The systemic aims and the operational objectives for the unit should be defined in the frame of national standards..

    .

    Second: The Prerequisites needed for teaching the unite from previous studies (facts, concepts, laws, reaction types

    and skills) should be tabulated into a list.

    Third: Then content analysis of the linearly-based unite into facts, concepts, laws, reaction types, mental, and experimental skills.


    H

    G

    Y

    X

    F

    Z

    E

    • Fourth: Draw a diagram illustrating linear relations

    • among the concepts of the unite [Fig.3].

    .


    H

    6

    ?

    1

    G

    Y

    ?

    5

    X

    2

    ?

    F

    4

    3

    Z

    E

    • Fifth: We put the sign () on the already knownrelationships from previous studies. Then the remaining linear relations are unknown and signed by (?). So, the diagram in Fig-3 should be modified as shown in Fig. 4:

    Fig4: Showing linear relations between concepts after defining the known from the unknown ones.


    7

    H

    12

    ?

    ?

    G

    Y

    1

    6

    ?

    ?

    5

    ?

    ?

    11

    X

    8

    2

    ?

    F

    Z

    4

    3

    ?

    ?

    E

    10

    9

    (SDss0)

    • Sixth: The diagram Fig.4 is modified to a systemic

    • diagram SD0Fig.5 by adding unknown relations between the concepts from (7-12).SD0 is known as the starting point of teaching the unite.

    .

    Fig5: Showing systemic relations between concepts after defining the known from the unknown ones.


    7

    H

    12

    ?

    G

    Y

    1

    6

    ?

    ?

    5

    11

    X

    8

    ?

    2

    ?

    F

    Z

    4

    3

    ?

    E

    10

    9

    Seventh:In the scenario for teaching the unit the student study the relations (7, 8, and 9).So, he will be able to add them to

    SD0 diagram to give SD1 diagram.Fig.6.

    Fig.6.[SD1]

    At this stage of teaching the unite we can ask the students to build systemics showing the relations between the concepts (X, Y, Z, and E)

    via systemic assessment..


    7

    H

    12

    ?

    G

    Y

    ?

    1

    6

    5

    11

    X

    8

    2

    F

    Z

    4

    3

    E

    10

    9

    • Eighth: In the next stage of the of the scenario

    • of teaching the unite, the student study the relations

    • (4, 5, 10, and 11) and then he will be able to add them

    • to SD1 to obtain SD2- Fig.7.

    Fig.7.[SD2]


    7

    H

    12

    G

    Y

    6

    1

    5

    11

    X

    8

    2

    F

    Z

    4

    3

    E

    10

    9

    • Ninth: In the last stage of teaching the unit , the student studied the two relations (6, 12). Then adds them toSD2toobtainSD3-Fig.8where we reached to the end of the

    • systemic teaching of the unite.

    Fig.8.[SD3]

    SD3 can be denoted as the terminal systemic SDf of teaching the unite.


    • Tenth:The scenario of teaching any course systemically -

    • involves the development of a systemic diagram (SD0) that has determined the starting point of the course;

    • it incorporates the prerequisite materials.

    • The course ends with a terminal systemic (SDf) in which

    • all the relationships between concepts are known

    • (Fig. 8).

    • From SDO through SDfwe crossover several systemics

    • with known and unknown relationships (SD1, SD2, etc.).

    .


    Difficulties in Learning Heterocyclic Chemistry

    By Traditional Methods

    • The students find the following difficulties in learning HC:

    • i) To Remember the structural formulas of heterocycles and

    • chemical properties related to these structures.

    • ii) Tounderstand the systemic effect of heteroatom on the

    • reactivity of both heterocycles and their substituent's.

    • iii) Tosynthesize systemic chemical relations between

    • compounds of the same or different heterocycles.

    • iv) Tounderstand the importance of heterocycles in their life's.

    • v) To Design synthesis of new target heterocycles via RSA.

    • vi) To connect between different heterocyclic systems.


    SATLHC

    Pure

    Applied

    - Synthesis

    - Pharmaceuticals

    - E-Substitution

    - Food Additives

    - Nu-Substitution

    - Plant growth regulators

    - Addition

    - Insecticides

    - Cycloaddaition

    - Herbicides

    - Ring Opening

    - Corrosion Inhibitors

    X

    - Het. Int. Conversion

    - Super conductors.

    - Dyes

    - Photographic materials

    Z

    etc..)

    Het.

    Z

    Z

    X,Y,E,F

    F

    Het.

    Y

    Het.

    (Functional Groups)

    Z

    Z = N, O, S

    Het.

    Z

    Het.

    E

    [LATLHC]

    [SATLHC]


    Uses of SATL-in Building Unites

    In Heterocyclic Chemistry:

    • A course of heterocyclic chemistry using the SATL technique was organized and taught to the 3rd year students at Ain Shams University.

    • SATLHCmeans survey study on the reactivity of both heterocycles and substituent's and the effect of heteroatom on their possible chemical relations.


    G

    Z

    B-Reactivity of

    A-Reactivity of

    the Substituents

    the Nucleus

    SATL-HC

    C-Heteroatom: [(Z)= NH, O, S]

    D-Substituents:[(G) = R, - CH2 - X, - X, -CH2 - OH - NH2, - CHO, - COR, - COOH]


    • Scienario of Building unite

    • on 5-Membered Heterocycles

    • First: Draw a diagram summarizes linear comparative reactivites of the five membered heterocycles as model of heterocyclic compounds, and their possible chemical relations. [Fig.1]


    [Fig.1]


    • The diagram Fig.1 represents the comparative reactivates of five membered heterocyclic rings, and gives the linear separated chemical relations between (Pyrrole,Furan,Thiophene), and their compounds.

    • Second:

    • The diagram Fig.1is modified to a systemic diagram SD1

    • Fig.2 by adding relations between Heterocyclic derivatives.

    • - SD1summarizes the comparative reactivates of both heterocyclic nucleus and substituent's.


    Fig.2


    • The systemic diagram SD1shows unknown chemical relations (1-7) between heterocyclic compounds.

    • These relations will be clarified later during the study of the unite [ pyrrole, furan and thiophen ].

    • At this stage of teaching the unite we can ask the Students to answer the following Systemic Assessmet-1.


    ASSESSMENT – I

    ON SD1

    QI) Draw systemic diagrams illustrating the chemical relations between compounds in each of the following sets. [SSnQ,s]


    A I - 1


    QII) Complete the following systemic diagrams:

    A II - 2


    Cl

    CHO

    N

    N

    H

    N

    N

    CH3Li /

    i) DMF/POCl3

    ii) aq. Na2CO3

    H

    H2/Rany Ni

    CH2Cl2

    + -

    red.

    CO2NH4

    N

    CHCl3/base

    H

    CH2OH

    HCHO

    (NH4)2CO3

    N

    130c

    Sealed Vessel

    H

    NaOH

    RMgX

    NBS

    R

    THF

    N

    + -

    Br

    N

    N

    i) C6H5NSO3

    H

    H

    H

    ii)HCl

    +

    PhN2

    AcONO2

    Ac2O

    -10C

    i) RCONR2

    ii) NaOAc

    SO3H

    N

    N2 Ph

    N

    H

    H

    NO2

    N

    H

    COR

    N

    H

    Reactions of pyrrole, furan, thiophene and their compounds

    I-Pyrrole: (Prerequisites SD1)

    • Third:From Fig.1 the student can deduce the reactions of pyrrole as in

    • the following diagram(Fig. 3).

    (Fig. 3).


    • The diagram (Fig. 3) represents the reactivity of (pyrrole nucleus), and gives the linear separated chemical relations between pyrrole and its compounds.

    • Fourth: We can illustrate the chemical relations in

    • (Fig.3) systemically by modification of SD1 to SD2 (Fig.4)(Z = NH):


    Reduction

    Oxid.

    Wolff/ Kishner

    red.

    ?

    CHO

    N

    (3)

    H

    Cl

    N

    i)DMF/POCl3

    ii) aq.Na2CO3

    R=CH3

    CH2Cl2/

    CH2OH

    N

    N

    CO2NH4

    N

    H

    CH3Li

    H

    (8)

    HCHO

    ?

    (NH4)2CO3

    R=CH3

    CHCl3/

    base

    ?

    base

    (1)

    130oc

    RMgX

    heat

    COOH

    N

    R

    200oC

    N

    H

    i) R`CONR2/POCl3

    ii) NaOAc

    N

    +

    PhN2

    (4)

    (2)

    H

    ?

    ?

    + -

    i) C6H5NSO3

    ii) HCl

    (5)

    N

    N2Ph

    N

    COR`

    AcONO2

    ?

    H

    H

    Ac2O,-10oc

    N

    SO3H

    H

    NBS/THF

    ?

    N

    NO2

    (6)

    H

    Br

    N

    SD 2

    H

    ?

    (7)

    (Fig.4)

    • Systemic diagram (SD2) shows; (i) known chemical relations between pyrrole and its compounds (ii) unknown chemical relations between pyrrole compounds (1-8),

    should be clarified during the study of pyrrole compounds.


    KMnO4

    R= CH3

    aq. alkaline KMnO4

    H2/Pd

    Oxid

    CHO

    N

    hydrolysis

    Cl

    Vap. Phase decarbonylation

    H

    (R= CH3)

    Ag2CO3/Celite

    N

    N

    LTA/AcOH, 

    NaBH4

    CH2Cl2 / CH3Li

    i) DMF/poCl3;

    ii)aq Na2 CO3

    CHBr2

    CHCl3/

    N

    N

    N

    base

    CH2OH

    H

    H

    H

    H2-Rany Ni

    CH2O/

    R=CH3

    R=CH3

    150-200C

    hydro

    NBS,CHCl3

    refulx

    NaOH

    N

    CO2NH4

    Diborane

    H

    (NH4)2CO3

    RMgx

    heat

    Alkylation

    200c

    R

    N

    N

    CO2H

    +

    H

    PhN2

    N

    H

    i) R`CONR2/POCl3

    ii) aq. Na2CO3

    +

    PhN2

    H

    Wolff-

    kishner

    red.

    N

    NBS/THF

    i) C6H5NSO3

    ii) HCl

    N2Ph

    H

    AcONO2

    bromination

    SOCl2/

    N

    Ac2O-10C

    COR`

    Br

    pyridne

    N

    N

    SO3H

    H

    H

    H

    Nitration

    COCl

    red

    N

    NO2

    N

    H

    H

    N

    NH2

    NaN3

    H

    Curtius

    N

    CON3

    rearang.

    SD 3

    H

    R = CH3

    Oxid., chromic acid

    • Fifth : After Study of pyrrole compounds [G = R, CH2OH, CHO, RCO,

    • COOH , NH2):

    The student can modify (SD 2 to SD 3) Fig.5 by adding chemical relations (1 – 8).

    Fig.5

    • At this stage of teaching the unite we can ask the Students to answer the following Systemic Assessmet-2.


    1-

    ,

    ,

    N

    N

    N

    COOH

    CHO

    H

    H

    H

    2-

    ,

    ,

    ,

    N

    N

    N

    NO2

    COOH

    CHO

    N

    H

    H

    H

    H

    3-

    ,

    ,

    ,

    N

    N

    N

    COONH4

    N2Ph

    N

    COOH

    H

    H

    H

    H

    ASSESSMENT – II

    ON SD3

    QI) Draw systemic diagrams illustrating the chemical relations between compounds of each of the following sets:[ SSnQ,s]

    (clockwise)


    COOH

    N

    H

    aq. alk.

    heat

    200oC

    KMnO4

    i)DMF, POCl3

    ii) aq. Na2 CO3

    N

    N

    CHO

    H

    H

    A I - 1


    QII)

    The systemic diagram represents the correct chemical relations between pyrrole and its related compounds is one of the following:

    [SMCQ,s]

    A) a: ()


    QIII) Which of the following systemics are true and which are false:

    [STFQ,s]

    A) a: (x); b: ()c: (x); d: ()


    QIV) Choose heterocyclic compounds from column (A) and reaction conditions from column (B) to build the systemic diagram in column (C):

    [SMQ,s]


    NBS/THF

    N

    Br

    N

    H

    H

    (NH4)2 CO3/

    130C

    Seald vessel

    heat

    Br2

    200C

    NBS/THF

    COOH

    N

    N

    H

    H

    hydrolysis

    (NH4)2 CO3/

    130C

    Seald vessel

    COONH4

    N

    COOH

    N

    heat

    Br2

    H

    H

    200C

    hydrolysis

    COONH4

    Br

    N

    N

    H

    H

    QV) Rearrange the compounds in the following SD to give correct chemical relations:[ SRQ,s]

    A)


    O

    CHO

    O

    O

    O

    O

    O

    i) DMF, POCl3

    ii) aq Na2 CO3

    Maleic anhydride

    H

    O

    O

    H

    O

    H2/Cat

    +

    H/H2O

    CH3I

    CH2N2/ hv

    O

    CH3

    N3COOEt

    N

    O

    Bun Li

    O

    Li

    EtI

    130C

    COOEt

    O

    Et

    2,3-Pyridyne

    (CH3)2 C=CH2

    N

    ZnCl2 /175C

    t

    O

    B

    O

    u

    i) R`CONR2/POCl3

    i) AcONO2

    ii) aq. Na2CO3

    ii) pyridine

    Br2/dioxan

    i)C6H5N.SO3

    -5C

    ii) HCl

    O

    COR`

    O

    NO2

    O

    O

    Br

    SO3H

    II-Furan:Prerequisite SD1

    • Sixth: From Fig.1 the student can deduce allthe reactions

    • of furan [Z=O] as in Fig.6.

    Fig.6

    • The above diagram represents the reactivity of furan nucleus, and gives the linear separated chemical relations between furan and its compounds.


    Oxidation

    3

    Reduction

    CHO

    O

    ?

    O

    O

    O

    i) DMF, POCl3

    ii) aq Na2 CO3

    O

    CH2OH

    O

    ?

    O

    O

    1

    CH2N2/hv

    H

    O

    O

    H

    Malic anhydride

    N

    O

    H2/Cat

    N3COOEt

    CH3I

    COOEt

    O

    CH3

    +

    130C

    H/H2O

    O

    Li

    EtI

    Bun Li

    (2,3)Pyridyne

    N

    O

    CH2CH3

    Heat (200C)

    (CH3)2 C=CH2

    ZnCl2 /175C

    CO2H

    O

    O

    But

    O

    i) AcONO2

    ?

    Ac2O, SnCl4

    5

    2

    ii) pyridine

    Br2/dioxan

    ?

    -5C

    O

    NO2

    i) C6H5NSO3

    ii) HCl

    ?

    COCH3

    6

    O

    7

    SD 4

    4

    ?

    Br

    O

    SO3H

    O

    ?

    • Seventh: From SD1 the student can illustrate the systemic chemical

    • relations in (Fig. 7) by modifying (SD1 to SD4) [Z=O]

    Fig. 7

    • The Systemic diagram SD4 shows; (i) known chemical relation between furan and its compounds (ii) unknown chemical relations between furan compounds. (1-7)


    Cu-Cr2O3/ -C

    K2Or2 O7/dil H2SO4

    CHO

    O

    250C red.

    NaBH4

    O

    Oxid

    red

    O

    O

    i) DMF/ POCl3

    CH2OH

    O

    ii) Na2CO3

    O

    H

    O

    O

    H

    O

    H2 / Ni-Co

    CH2N2

    Maleic anhydride

    +

    H /H2O

    N

    O

    O

    CH3I

    N3COOEt

    CO2Et

    O

    CH3

    H2/Cat

    130C

    O

    Li

    EtI

    Bun Li

    2,3 pyridyne

    N

    O

    CH2CH3

    Heat (200C)

    (CH3)2 C=CH2

    ZnCl2 /175C

    CO2H

    O

    O

    But

    O

    HNO3

    i)CO2

    i) AcONO2

    Ac2O, SnCl4

    ii) pyridine

    wolff Kishner

    ii)hydro

    Red.

    Br2

    Br2/dioxan

    O

    NO2

    i)C6H5N.SO3

    ii) HCl

    O

    MgBr

    0C

    O

    COCH3

    COOH

    O

    Mg/cu

    ether

    H2SO4

    Br

    Cu-Quinoline

    heat

    SD5

    H2SO4

    SO3H

    O

    Br

    O

    • Eighth: After the next stage of the study of furan compounds [G = R, X, CH2OH, CHO, RCO, COOH] the student can modify (SD4 to SD5) Fig.8 by additions chemical relations (1-7).

    Fig.8

    • In the systemic diagram (SD5) the chemical relations between furan compounds are clarified.

    • - At this stage of teaching the unite we can ask the Students to answer the following

    • Systemic Assessmet-3


    Br2

    COOH

    Br

    COOH

    O

    O

    heat

    200oc

    Cu/quinoline

    D

    Br2 / dioxan

    -5oC

    Br

    O

    O

    1-

    2-

    3-

    ,

    ,

    ,

    Br

    COOH

    Br

    O

    O

    O

    O

    CO2H

    ,

    ,

    COOH

    CHO

    O

    O

    O

    O

    ,

    ,

    ,

    CCH3

    Li

    O

    O

    O

    O

    Et

    ASSESSMENT – III

    ON SD5

    QI) Draw systemic diagrams illustrating the possible chemical relations between compounds of each of following sets:[SSyQ,s]

    A I – 1


    QII) Which of the following systemics are true and which are false: [STFQs]

    A )a: (); b: (x)c: (); d: (x)


    QIII: Link systemics from list (I) to one systemic in list (II):

    [SMQ,s]


    CHO

    S

    S

    CH2Cl

    S

    S

    CH2O/HCl

    i) DMF, POCl3

    ii) aq. NaOAc

    CH3

    CH3

    Li/NH3, CH3OH

    i)(CH3)3B

    S/700oC

    S

    CH3

    ii)I2

    CH3

    Bun Li

    CH3

    Rany Ni

    i)Et3B

    S

    Li

    O

    Maleic anhydride

    ii)I2

    CH3CH = CH2

    S

    S

    Et

    O

    S

    Benzyne

    290C, 21 atm.

    O

    Br2/AcOH

    S

    Pri

    ether

    NO2BF4

    CH3COCl/SnCl4

    C6H5NSO3

    C6 H6 , 0oC

    Br

    S

    NO2

    S

    S

    S

    SO3H

    COCH3

    III-Thiophene: (Prerequisite SD1)

    • Ninth:From Fig.1 the student can summarize all the reactions

    • of thiophene in the following diagram (Fig. 9). [Z=S]

    • The above diagram represents the reactivity of (thiophene nucleus), and gives the linear separated chemical relations between thiophene, and thiophene compounds.


    ?

    oxidation

    reduction

    (2)

    CHO

    S

    +

    i) DMF, POCl3

    ii) aq. NaOAc

    S

    S

    S

    CH2Cl

    red

    S, 200

    Li/NH3,

    CH3OH

    CH2O/HCl

    O

    Red.

    I) (CH3)3B2

    O

    S

    ii) I2

    S

    CH3

    Maleic

    S

    Li

    Bnu Li

    ahydride

    i)Et3B

    O

    ii)I2

    Benzyne

    S

    Et

    CH3 CH=CH2

    Cu / Quinoline

    290C, 21 atm.

    heat

    CO2H

    S

    Pri

    S

    S

    (3)

    Br2/AcOH

    ?

    ether

    NO2BF4

    (1)

    C6H5NSO3

    CH3COCl/SnCl4

    Br

    S

    ?

    C6 H6 ,

    (5)

    S

    NO2

    ?

    S

    SO3H

    (4)

    ?

    (6)

    COCH3

    SD6

    S

    • Tenth:The student can illustrate the chemical relations in (Fig. 10) systemically by modifying (SD1 to SD6) [Z = S ]

    Fig. 10

    • The above systemic diagram (SD 6) shows; (i)The known chemical relations between thiophene and its compounds,(ii) The unknown chemical relations between thiophene compounds (1-6).


    • Eleventh:Afterthe next stage of the study of thiophene compounds [ G= R, X, CH2OH, CHO, RCO, COOH ] . The student can modify (SD6 to SD7) Fig.11 by addition of chemical relations (1-6).

    SD 7

    Fig.11

    • In the (SD7) all chemical relations between thiophene compounds were clarified.

    • - At this stage of teaching the unite we can ask the Students to answer the following

    • Systemic Assessmet-4


    ASSESSMENT – IV

    ON SD7

    QI) Draw systemic diagrams illustrating the chemical relations between compounds of each of the following sets:[SSnQ,s]


    A I – 1


    (1)

    ..........

    CH3

    CH2OH

    O

    O

    (5)

    (4)

    (2)

    ..........

    i) ...........

    ii) ..........

    ..........

    (3)

    ..........

    ..........

    CHO

    O

    (1)

    H2/ Ni-Co

    D

    CH2OH

    CH3

    O

    O

    (5)

    (4)

    Cu- Cr2O3 /C

    (2)

    i) BunLi

    NaBH4

    250oC

    ii) CH3I

    (3)

    i) DMF, POCl3

    ii) aq. Na2CO3

    CHO

    O

    O

    QII) Complete the following systemic diagram:

    A


    • SUMMARY:

    • In the linear classical approach we teach heterocycles as separate chemical reactions of the rings , also the relationships between heterocyclic derivatives are ambiguous infront of our students; however in SATL-HEthe students are able to do the the following chemical transformations:

    1- Heterocycles to another heterocycles in a direct pathway:


    2- Three-membered to four-membered heterocycles via

    aliphatic compounds and vis versa:


    3- Heterocyclic derivative to another hetercyclic derivative:

    Example:


    4-Aliphatic compound to another aliphatic compound

    via heterocycle:


    5- Heterocycles to homocycles:


    6- Design synthesis of any target heterocyclic system via

    Retro-Synthesitic Analysis[RSA]: Synthesis of [IMIDES]


    • Conclusion:

    • After the experimentation of SATLHC in Egypt we reached to the following conclusions:

    1)SATLHCimproved the students ability to view (HC) from a more global perspective.

    2)SATLHChelps the students to develop their own mental framework at higher-level cognitive processes (application, analysis, and synthesis).

    3)SATLHCincreases students ability & enthusiasm to learn HCin a greater context.

    • 4)SATLHChelp students to view the pattern of pure and applied heterocyclic

    • chemistry rather than synthesis and reactions of heterocycles.

    5)SATLHCincreases the ability of students to think systemically.

    6)SATLHC enhances the students mental skills towards building

    target heterocyclic systems via Retro-Synthetic Analysis.


    • References:

    (1) Taagepera, M.; Noori, S.; J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1224.

    (2) Fahmy, A. F. M.; Lagowsik. J. J.; J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, (9), 1078.

    (3) Fahmy, A. F. M., El-Shahaat, M. F., and Saied, A., International Workshop on SATLC, Cairo, Egypt, April (2003).

    (4) Fahmy, A.F.M., Lagowski, J.J.; Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Aliphatic Chemistry; Modern Arab Establishment for printing, publishing; Cairo, Egypt (2000).

    (5) Fahmy A. F. M., El-Hashash M., Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Heterocyclic Chemistry. Science Education Center, Cairo, Egypt (1999).

    (6) Fahmy, A. F. M.; Hamza M. S. A; Medien, H. A. A.; Hanna, W. G., M. Abedel-Sabour; and Lagowski; J. J.; Chinese J. Chem. Edu., 23 (12) 2002, 12, 17th IEEC, Beijing August (2002).

    (7) Systemic assessment as a new tool for assessing students learning

    In Chemistryusing SATL methods: Systemic true false [STFQs] and

    systemic sequencing [SSQs] question types.

    A.F.M. Fahmy and J. J. Lagowski

    AJCE. 2, (2)66-78(2012).


    THAK YOU

    FOR YOUR

    ATTENTION


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