Voice over ip fundamentals
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Voice Over IP Fundamentals. BAI 613. Course Objectives. PSTN Fundamentals Voice over IP Technology Quality of Service VoIP Signaling Protocols Enterprise VoIP. The beginning of PSTN. The beginning of the PSTN First voice transmission in 1876 Used a ring-down circuit Only one way

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Voice over ip fundamentals

Voice Over IP Fundamentals

BAI 613


Course objectives

Course Objectives

  • PSTN Fundamentals

  • Voice over IP Technology

  • Quality of Service

  • VoIP Signaling Protocols

  • Enterprise VoIP


The beginning of pstn

The beginning of PSTN

  • The beginning of the PSTN

    • First voice transmission in 1876

      • Used a ring-down circuit

      • Only one way

    • Bi-directional evolution

      • Required

        • Carbon microphone

        • Battery

        • Electromagnet

        • Iron diaphragm

      • Cable between each location

        • N x (N – 1)/2

        • If 10 locations, 45 pairs of lines needed to run into calling location

        • Impractical

      • A central switch allowed location to location connection without multiple lines running to each location

        • Operated by human operators


Pstn basics 1 15

PSTN Basics (1/15)

  • Analog and Digital Signaling

    • All sound that you hear is in analog form

    • Telephony networks originally based on analog infrastructure

    • Analog communication

      • Time and amplitude

      • Requires amplification over long distances

      • Susceptible to line noise

      • Amplifiers also amplified line noise

        • Known as cumulative noise

    • Digital communication

      • Based on 1’s and 0’s

      • Line noise less of an issue

      • Use repeaters to amplify

      • Repeaters clean signal to original condition (1 or 0)

      • When the benefits of this became evident, telephony migrated to PCM (Pulse Code Modulation)


Pstn basics 2 15

PSTN Basics (2/15)

  • Digital Voice Signals

    • PCM most common encoding of analog signal to digital

    • PCM uses the Nyquist Theorem

      • Sampling at twice the highest frequency on a voice line results in good quality voice transmission.

    • PCM Process

      • Analog waveform filtered to remove anything greater than 4000 Hz.

      • Filtered signal is sampled at 8000 times per second

      • Converted to discrete digital form.

    • 8 bits * 8000 = 64,000 bits per second

    • Basis for the telephone infrastructure is 64Kbps

    • 2 PCM variations

      • u-law - America

      • a-law – Europe


Pstn basics 3 15

PSTN Basics (3/15)

  • Loops, Trunks, and Interswitch Comms

    • Local Loop

      • Pair of copper wires running to the demark point (eg Your home, business, etc.)

      • Physically connects simple phone to the central office switch

        • Class 5 switch or end office switch

    • Trunk

      • Communication path between several central office switches

    • Interswitch Communications

      • Central office switches interconnect through trunks to tandem switches (class 4 switches)

      • Higher-layer tandem switches connect local tandem switches


Pstn basics 4 15

PSTN Basics (4/15)


Pstn basics 5 15

PSTN Basics (5/15)

  • PSTN Signaling

    • User-to-network

      • When using twisted pair, a user connects to the PSTN via analog, ISDN, or T1 carrier

      • Most common method is Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF)

      • DTMF is in-band signaling


Pstn basics 6 15

PSTN Basics (6/15)

  • User-to-Network (cont.)

    • ISDN

      • Out-of-band signaling

      • Uses a separate channel for signalling

      • B channel (bearer)

        • Voice, data, fax

      • D channel (data or control)

        • Signaling

      • Basic Rate Interface (BRI)

        • Two 64 Kbps B channels

        • One 16 Kbps D channel

      • Primary Rate Interface (PRI)

        • Twenty three 64 Kbps B channels

        • One 64 Kbps D channel


Pstn basics 7 15

PSTN Basics (7/15)

  • Network-to-network Signaling

    • Usually carried via

      • T1/E1 over twisted pair

        • T1 is 1.544 Mbps, used in North America

        • E1 is 2.048 Mbps, used in Europe

      • T3/E3, T4 over coaxial cable

        • T3 carries 28 T1’s or 672 64 Kbps connections at 44.736 Mbps

        • E3 carries 16 E1’s or 512 64 Kbps connections at 35.368 Mbps

        • T4 carries 168 T1’s or 4032 64 Kbps connections at 274.176 Mbps

      • T3, T4 over microwave link

      • Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) across fiber

        • OC-3 – 155.52 Mbps

        • OC-12 – 622.08 Mbps

        • OC-48 – 2.488 Gbps


Pstn basics 8 15

PSTN Basics (8/15)

  • Network-to-network (cont.)

    • Includes in-band signaling methods such as Multi-Frequency (MF) and Robbed Bit Signaling (RBS)

    • Signaling System 7 (SS7) is most common

      • Out-of-band

      • Reduced post-dialing delay

      • Increased call completion

      • Connection to the IN (Intelligent Network)


Pstn basics 9 15

PSTN Basics (9/15)

  • PSTN Services and Applications

    • Common custom calling features

      • Call waiting

      • Call forwarding

      • Three-way calling

    • CLASS features (as a result of SS7)

      • Call display

      • Call blocking

      • Calling line ID blocking

      • Automatic callback

      • Call return (*69)

    • Inter-exchange features

      • Circuit-switched long distance

      • Calling cards

      • 800/888/877 numbers

      • VPNs

      • Private leased lines

      • Virtual cicuits (Frame Relay or ATM)


Pstn basics 10 15

PSTN Basics (10/15)

  • PSTN Numbering Plans

    • ITU-T

      • International Numbering Plan

    • NANP

      • North American Numbering Plan

      • NPA-NXX-XXXX

        • NPA – Numbering Plan Area (area code)

        • NXX – Central Office Code

          • N is a value between 2-9

          • X is a value between 0-9

        • XXXX – Station Number

          • X is a value between 0-9

      • Some places in the US and Canada require 1+10 digit calling for local calls


Pstn basics 11 15

PSTN Basics (11/15)

  • Drivers Behind Convergence of Voice and Data

    • Drawbacks to PSTN

      • Data has taken over as primary traffic on many networks build for voice

      • PSTN cannot create and deploy features quickly enough

      • Data/Voice/Video (D/V/V) cannot converge on PSTN as currently built

      • Architecture built for voice not flexible enough to carry data

  • Packet Telephony Drivers

    • Circuit Switching model is breaking into an open standards layered model

      • Standards-Based Packet Infrastructure Layer

      • Open Call-control Layer

      • Open Service Application Layer


Pstn basics 12 15

PSTN Basics (12/15)

  • Packet Telephony Drivers (cont.)

    • Standards-Based Packet Infrastructure Layer

      • Based on IP

      • RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol)

        • UDP

        • Used for transporting real-time traffic

        • To date all VoIP signaling protocols utilize RTP/UDP/IP

        • Uses time stamps to determine when a packet is expected, if it was in order, or if it was received

        • Time stamping helps end stations tune settings to mask potential network problems such as delay, jitter, and packet loss.

      • Jitter – the variation of interpacket arrival time, or the difference when a packet is supposed to be received and when it is actually received.

      • Self-Healing

        • Traffic has multiple paths due to dynamic routing protocols


Pstn basics 13 15

PSTN Basics (13/15)

  • Packet Telephony Drivers (cont.)

    • Open Call-Control Layer

      • The process of making a routing decision about where a call needs to go and making the call happen.

      • Similar to PSTN Call Signaling

      • VoIP call-control protocols

        • SIP

        • H.323

        • MGCP

        • H.248/Megaco

    • Open Service Application Layer

      • Vendors can release APIs to the products to allow rapid development of applications.

        • E.g. Displaying stocks and weather information


Pstn basics 14 15

PSTN Basics (14/15)

  • VoIP Call Control Protocols

    • H.323

      • An ITU-T recommendation that specifies how multimedia traffic is carried over packet networks.

      • Complex protocol – not created for simple application development

      • Created to enable multimedia applications to run over unreliable networks

    • MGCP (Evolution from SGCP and IPDC)

      • SGCP and MGCP were developed to enable a central device (Media Gateway Controller) to control endpoints.

    • SIP

      • Described by RFC 3261

      • Application-layer control protocol for creating, modifying, and terminating sessions with one or more participant


Pstn basics 15 15

PSTN Basics (15/15)

  • VoIP Call Control Protocols (cont.)

    • H.248/MEGACO

      • Joint effort of IETC and ITU-T Study Group 16

      • Exploded H.323’s gatekeeper model and removed signaling from the gateway, putting it in a media gateway controller (MGC)


Enterprise telephony today 1 2

Enterprise Telephony Today (1/2)

  • Similarities Between PSTN and ET

    • Circuit Switching

    • Common Infrastructure Model

    • Local Loop

    • Common Services

  • Differences between PSTN and ET

    • Signaling

      • PSTN uses signaling interfaces developed by industry bodies

      • PBX manufacturers use proprietary protocols to enable features on their equipment

    • Services Offered

      • ET requirements are much greater than typical residential users


Enterprise telephony today 2 2

Enterprise Telephony Today (2/2)

  • Common ET and PSTN Internetworking

    • ET must eventually interconnect with the PSTN

    • 5 common designs

      • Simple business line

        • Uses a line directly from the PSTN as a business line

      • PBX

        • A Private Branch Exchange provides many advanced features

        • Usually connects to the PSTN via a T1 or E1 cicuit

      • Key-System

        • Similar to a PBX, with less features

        • Used typically for 50 people or less

      • Centrex Line

        • Provided and managed by the LEC (Local Exchange Carrier) or CLEC (Competitive Local Exchange Carrier)

      • Virtual Private Networks

        • The PSTN contains a private dial plan for the business


Basic telephony signaling 1 4

Basic Telephony Signaling (1/4)

  • Direct Current Signaling

    • Relies on DC to signal the end switch or office

    • Toggles on or off the flow of DC

    • Uses two arrangements

      • Subscriber Loop

        • When subscriber goes off-hook, CD -48V flows across the line or loop between telephone and CO

        • When subscriber goes on-hook, the capacitor in the telephone blocks the flow of current

      • E & M (recEive and transMit)

        • Uses a form of DC signaling to indicate state changes on trunks or tie-lines


Basic telephony signaling 2 4

Basic Telephony Signaling (2/4)

  • In-Band and Out-of-Band Signaling

    • Single Frequency

      • Used for interoffice trunks

      • Has two states:

        • On-hook or idle

        • Off-hook or busy

    • Multi Frequency

      • Used by interoffice trunks to indicate events

        • Seizure

        • Release

        • Answer

        • Acknowledge

      • Transmit information such as calling party number

    • DTMF

      • Used to transmit telephone number digits from the subscriber to the local office


Basic telephony signaling 3 4

Basic Telephony Signaling (3/4)

  • Local-Start and Ground-Start Signaling

    • Loop-Start

      • Simplest and least intelligent

      • Works same way as the telephone and local end office

      • Initiates and closes a call by creating and closing a loop

      • Glare can occur

        • Two end points try to seize the line at the same time, resulting in two people being connected unknowingly

    • Ground-Start

      • Preferred method for PBX

      • Provides positive recognition of connects and disconnects

      • Current detection determines which end initiated a call

      • Reduces Glare


Basic telephony signaling 4 4

Basic Telephony Signaling (4/4)

  • Channel-Associated-Signaling (CAS) & Common-Channel Signaling (CCS)

    • CAS carries signaling info in the voice path itself

    • Robs a bit from the voice transmission channel (Robbed Bit Signaling)

    • CCS uses a separate signaling path

      • Faster and more flexible than CAS

      • Method used today is known as Signaling System 7 (SS7) or in Canada as CCS


Pstn services 1 3

PSTN Services (1/3)

  • POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service)

    • Standard Telephony Service

      • Dial Tone

      • Access to national and international carriers

      • 911 service

      • Custom calling features

        • Call waiting, call forwarding, etc.

      • Voice mail

      • Custom Local Area Signaling Service (CLASS)

        • Call trace

        • Auto-callback

        • Caller ID

        • Call number blocking


Pstn services 2 3

PSTN Services (2/3)

  • Business Services

    • Virtual Private Voice Networks

      • Alternative to Tie Lines

    • Centrex Services

      • The Telco contains, maintains, and managing the equipment and all the services

      • Provides many features found in PBX

      • Less expensive than maintaining own PBX for small company

    • Call Center Services

      • Automatic call distribution (ACD)

    • Service Provider Services

      • Database Services

        • 800 number services

        • 900 number services

        • Calling Card services

        • Authorization services


Pstn services 3 3

PSTN Services (3/3)

  • Service Provider Services (cont.)

    • Operator Services

      • Toll and Assistance

      • Directory Assistance

      • Billing Services


Reading

Reading

  • Chapter 1

  • Chapter 2

  • Chapter 3

    • Exclude detailed E&M Signaling

      • Page 50 – 54

    • Exclude Page 55-77

  • Chapter 5


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