chapter 2
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Chapter 2

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 24

Chapter 2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 130 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 2. Highlights from Chapter 2. Infrastructure for Olympic Games in Sydney in 2000 required LCA Looked at the built environment Product design Waste management Biofuels Water management. Highlights continued. Many other international avenues

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Chapter 2' - olesia


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
highlights from chapter 2
Highlights from Chapter 2
  • Infrastructure for Olympic Games in Sydney in 2000 required LCA
    • Looked at the built environment
  • Product design
  • Waste management
  • Biofuels
  • Water management
highlights continued
Highlights continued
  • Many other international avenues
  • Table 2.1 – do you think that is similar in the US?
    • Getting data is difficult
  • Table 2.2 (next slide) – any differences between Australia and the US?
goals
Goals
  • Start with a baby project
  • Steps to perform an LCA
  • Additional terminology
  • Types of LCA
baby project
Baby Project
  • Groups or individually?
  • Impact of incandescent, CFL, and LED lighting in KY households
  • Energy star refrigerator versus normal refrigerator in a KY household
  • Any other ideas?
1 steps to perform an lca
1. Steps to perform an LCA
  • Important to have a well defined problem description or question as a starting point
  • Sometimes they will be very specific
    • GHGE from a KY household if they switch from incandescent to CFL
    • What is the best fuel for power production
  • Questions can evolve over time and could be iterative
    • Maybe we need to add LED lights to the analysis?
2 scope
2. Scope
  • Scope may be adjusted due to
    • Number of life cycle stages (how complicated do you want to make this)
    • Number of environmental impacts and indicators
    • Quantity of locally collected, specific data for the LCA
additional classifications of lca
Additional Classifications of LCA
  • Bottom up
    • Process analysis
    • Buy components, build a tractor, recycle scraps
    • Buy equipment to grow algae,
  • Top down also Input/output (3.5)
    • Anyone have macro economics
attributional vs consequential
Attributional vs Consequential
  • Attributional
    • Probably our may focus
    • Average impacts of a process
  • Consequential
    • Considers decisions by consumers
    • Scale, location, market conditions, etc.
    • Might consider peoples perceptions of CFL – i.e. x% hate CFLs
3 2 generic elements of lca
3.2 Generic Elements of LCA
  • Functional unit
    • Each option provides same function or utility
    • Bumper of steel or plastic
      • Needs to have same safety, look, etc.
    • Travel same mile with fuel (ethanol versus gasoline)
    • Looking for substitution with equal function, but lower environmental burden
      • Light bulbs need to provide equal illumination
generic elements cont
Generic Elements cont.
  • System boundary
    • Could be everything
      • Mineral extraction, processing, transport to factory, etc
    • Narrow
      • Bt versus traditional cotton
      • Assume same yield, harvest, planting equipment, quality of product
      • Only difference in pesticide applications
generic elements cont1
Generic Elements cont.
  • Inputs/outputs
    • Make sure relative to functional unit
    • Materials, services, energy, CO2, N, heavy metals, etc.
  • Impact assessment
    • Maybe just GHGE
    • Or looking at lead reduction
    • Maybe major pollutant
      • NOx, Sox, Hg from power generation
3 4 streamlined lca
3.4 Streamlined LCA
  • Simplified studies
    • Narrow boundaries
    • Targets specific issues
    • Using readily available data
      • Could be qualitative data
    • Might be difficult to publish
3 5 input output
3.5 Input Output
  • Looks at economic sectors
  • US economy split into 500 sectors
  • We probably will not work with this
  • Other methods are more process base, not economics based
lca integrated life cycle costing
LCA-integrated Life Cycle Costing
  • Covers all costs of owning, operating, maintaining and disposing of equipment
  • Could be different types of cost – manufacturer, consumer, public
    • Cost of a barrel of oil?
  • Remember time is important
    • Do you want $1 today or $1 in the future?
    • Often need to move $ from different time basis
examples
Examples
  • GHGE from a KY household if they switch from incandescent to CFL
  • Functional unit
  • Number of life cycles
  • System boundary
  • Inputs and outputs to the system
  • Recycling of CFL– probably could arrive at some data using the input-output economic impact
difficulties with cfl problem
Difficulties with CFL Problem
  • Life of bulbs
  • Transportation differences
    • Are they manufactured in same location
  • Process energy
    • Manufacturing
    • Recycling
    • Trade groups – light bulb association?
  • Maybe breakdown by component
    • Glass, steel, plastic, etc (World Steel Organization)
    • http://worldsteel.org/dms/internetDocumentList/bookshop/LCA-Methodology-Report/document/LCA%20Methodology%20Report.pdf
    • Find “gross” data for raw materials
life cycle inventory
Life Cycle Inventory
  • I think this is just a fancy way of saying data sources
  • Power generation – DOE ?, maybe state office of energy
    • CO2, Hg -- what about potential mining differences from lower energy consumption
  • Life span of bulbs and energy consumption – mfg of bulb
  • Recycling/waste disposal – maybe EPA or city/state
examples1
Examples
  • Bottled water versus tap
    • Functional unit
    • Number of life cycles
    • System boundary
    • Inputs and outputs
    • Recycling
difficult part with water
Difficult part with water
  • Water source
    • Municipal versus Fiji
    • Transportation distances
  • Refrigeration
  • Types of plastic
    • Recycling concerns
  • Service life of products
ad