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TANTALUS:. king of SIPYLUS (region in Lydia). Son of ZEUS and an OCEANID named PLUTO (NOT the same as the Roman underworld god!). Married a PLEIADE – DIONE. 3 children. NIOBE – yes, that one.

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Tantalus
TANTALUS:

  • king of SIPYLUS (region in Lydia). Son of ZEUS and an OCEANID named PLUTO (NOT the same as the Roman underworld god!).

  • Married a PLEIADE – DIONE. 3 children.

    • NIOBE – yes, that one.

    • BROTEAS – refused to honor ARTEMIS, driven mad by her so thata he burned himself to death under the illusion that he was impervious to fire.

    • PELOPS.


  • T. was intimate and favorite of Zeus.

  • BUT

  • When guest on Olympus, stole nectar and ambrosia and gave them to mortal friends. Also divulged divine secrets.

  • Stole Zeus’s pet – a golden dog (or hid it for the thief PANDAREUS)


  • Then did something even worse.

  • Invited gods to a feast.

  • Killed his own son PELOPS, dismembered the body and served the flesh in a stew.

  • Omniscient guests saw through this and did not eat, except for distraught DEMETER who ate a piece of P.’s left shoulder. Zeus restored P. to life and Demeter gave him a shoulder of ivory.

  • To punish him for his blasphemy against the gods and goddesses Zeus crushed T. under a cliff of Mt. Sipylus and then condemned him to eternal torment in Tartarus. Hung from fruit tree over pool of water. Fruit always moved away from his grasp and water always receded from him when he tried to drink – eternal hunger and thirst. Also immense rock always over his head threatening to fall on him.


Tantalus willi glasauer pencil drawing 1864
Tantalus. Willi Glasauer, Pencil drawing, 1864


Ixion
Ixion

  • The most complete account of Ixion's tale comes from Pindar in his Pythian Odes.

  • Ixion was the son of the Phlegyas, descendent of Ares, and king of the Lapiths in Thessaly.

  • known as the first human to shed kindred blood. This occurred when Ixion invited his father-in-law, Deioneus, to come and collect the price that Ixion owed him for his bride. Upon his arrival, Deioneus fell into a pit filled with burning coals Ixion had camouflaged.

  • Crime new to the human race, nobody could purify Ixion and he wandered an exile. Zeus took pity on him and decided not only to purify Ixion, but to invite him to Olympus as a guest.

  • Once in Olympus though, Ixion got interested in Hera, and wanted to sleep with her. Zeus did not believe that Ixion would be so disrespectful as to try for the wife of his host.

  • Made an image of Hera out of a cloud, and Ixion impregnated it. The cloud bore the monster Centaurus, unloved by the Graces and had no honor among men or the gods. Centaurus mated with the mares of Mt. Pelion in Magnesia, and so from Ixion the race of centaurs was born.

  • To punish him, Zeus bound Ixion to a winged (sometimes flaming) wheel, which revolved in the air in all directions. Also, by order of the gods, Ixion was forced to call out continuously call out: "You should show gratitude to your benefactor." Ixion became one of the more famous sinners on display on Tartarus, and most writers mention him when describing the place. For example, Ovid wrote of him, and Vergil, with his moralistic interpretation of how sin should be punished, awards Ixion a special mention in the Aenead.


The danaids
The Danaids

  • the fifty daughters of King Danaus

  • forty-nine of them are sentenced to eternally fill bottomless/broken vesels with water.

  • Their father leaves Egypt and settles in Argos while he fears that he will be assassinated by his brother King Aegyptus and his fifty sons. The fifty sons come to Danaus and ask for the girls’ hands in marriage. Danaus consents but under false pretense.

  • On the wedding night, Danaus ordered his daughters to kill their husbands with daggers. All the Danaids kill their husbands but one; Hypermnestra loves her Lynceus and refuses.

  • The remaining Danaids marry the Argives who have won their favor. However, Lynceus avenges the deaths of his brothers and kills all 49 of the Danaids and in Tartarus they receive the punishment of filling bottomless barrels with water.


Adventures in the underworld continued

Adventures in the Underworld Continued.

Orpheus in the Underworld.


  • Poet & lyrist

  • Poss. Greatest of all musicians in Greek myth.

  • Son of Apollo and Calliope, muse muse of epic poetry

  • Became master of the lyre, playing enchanted every living thing. Soothed savage beasts and moved all of nature.

  • As young man joined journey of Jason and the Argonauts – playing saved the ship from fighting AND from the SIRENS.


  • In homeland of TRHACE fell in love with EURYDICE and married her – happieness like none before.

  • Beekeeper ARISTAEUS, also son of Apollo also wanted Eurydice.. When she fled from him she stepped on a venomous serpent which bit her and died from the poison.

  • Orpheus could not live without her, together with his lyre wnet down to the underworld.

  • Even in the underworld his playing proved to be enchanting, the ferryman CHARON, the three-headed guard dog and the three Judges of the Dead all let him pass. Even the damned received release from their tortures while he played.

  • Even Hades and Persephone gave into it. Agreed to return Eurydice to life – catch – As he returned to the uperworld, he could not turn back and look at her until they were boith in the light of the sun. BUT he did look back and she faded away, becoming a shadow.

  • O. could not get back to the underworld.


  • Did not live long. her – happieness like none before.

  • Multiple versions

  • Established rite to sacrifice to his father Apollo calling him greatest of all gods – pissed of Dionysus for O.’s refusal to honor him, sent maenads to tear him apart and they ripped him up

  • Maenads each wanted O. for herself and refused to give up her claim and they ripped him up

  • O’s continuing fidelity to Eurydice and renunciation of love forever enraged women of Thrace and they ripped him up

  • Mother and other muses gathered scattered pieces. Buried all but the head in PIERIA – O’s birthplace and one of the favorite places of the muses. The still singing head of Orpheus and his lyre floated across the sea to the island of LESBOS. People of Lesbos buried his head and were rewarded with the gift of music. His lyre became the constellation LYRA.


Orpheus charms animals

Orpheus charms animals her – happieness like none before.


Orpheus and eurydice

Orpheus and Eurydice her – happieness like none before.


Death of orpheus

Death of Orpheus her – happieness like none before.


Odysseus
ODYSSEUS her – happieness like none before.

  • Lost on high seas after fall of Troy

  • Instructed by witch Circe to seek advice from ghost of TIRESIAS – she tells them that they will have to visit the death realm to talk to the seer Tiresias to get instructions on how to get home.

  • Cimmerian city - CIMMERIANS – real people. In Homer’s time lived north of black sea – was to ancient Greeks really the end of the world. Mythologized by Homer – extreme west by river Ocean which separated the land of the living from the dd. Place where sun never shines and ghosts could be approached.


  • Necromancy: “divination by means of the dead”. Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • Psyche (pl. psychai)

  • Dig pit & pour in Honey, milk, wine, barely-water, blood of slaughtered sheep. Summon ghosts

  • Many - Minimal sensual capacity or intelligence. Only enough to sense blood and enough will to want it.

  • Elpenor (?) – comrade

  • Teiresias/Tiresias – seer

  • Antiklea (mother)

  • Heroines, esp. Epikaste (Iokasta)

  • Comrades: Agamemnon, Achilles, Aias (Ajax)

  • Heroes: Active: Minos, Orion, Herakles

  • Punished: Tityos, Tantalos, Sisyphus. Cf. Ixion, Danaids, Oknos (Ocnus)

  • ACHILLES – reply – summarizes Greek pessimistic view.


Monsters

MONSTERS Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.


Monsters1
Monsters Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • Size: change from Natural size of things

  • Multpiplication of body parts or fewer of htem

  • Blend parts of different naturally ooccurring animals

  • Manufacturing – add some feature that doesn’t occur in nature (skin made out of metal).


Heroes

HEROES Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.


Demigods heroes
DEMIGODS & HEROES Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • Heroes:

  • Hero type:

  • Men and women of the prehistoric period – ‘Heroic Age’

  • Protectors

  • Hera – protectress

  • Great person of old

  • Usually with one mortal and one divine parent

  • Normally associated with a Greek deed.

  • Eventually died and had a ‘hero-cult’ after he died. Remains considered especially powerful.

  • Modern idea of hero.

  • In story – protagonist – most important.

  • Physical strength

  • Skill

  • Cleverness


  • Hesiod: timeline: Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • Chaos  Establishment of cosmic order (cosmos)  creation of humans  loss of paradise/degredation  Great Deluge  second creation of heroes  Age of Heroes  Historical Period.


  • Hero story Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • Biography, birth + Growth  dth.

  • Local reference

  • One mortal, one immortal parent

  • Often fits into pattern “2 father figures”

  • Hero finally dies since he is part mortal.


  • Hero Pattern Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • Birth

  • (blank)

  • quest

  • success

  • princess

  • revenge

  • rule

  • death


Hero pattern
Hero Pattern Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • 2 father figures: ‘mentor’ and role analogous to good or bad father: One will be beneficent or passive and one will be hostile.

  • Birth:

  • Usually born under unusual circumstances. Often includes danger for baby. Birth attended by unusual circumstances.

  • Blank:

  • Stories don’t generally say anything from after the birth to middle/late teens

  • Assignment of Quest:

  • At this point significant meeting with hostile father figure, usually in foreign land, who assigns quest in veiled attempt to destroy him.

  • Success:

  • Hero then is successful.

  • Then gets foreign bride – normally a princess.

  • Revenge:

  • Returns, confronts hostile father figure and destroys him.

  • Rule: Returns and rules:

  • Either founds city or rules city.

  • Dies


Odysseus1
ODYSSEUS Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • Lost on high seas after fall of Troy

  • Instructed by witch Circe to seek advice from ghost of TIRESIAS – she tells them that they will have to visit the death realm to talk to the seer Tiresias to get instructions on how to get home.

  • Cimmerian city

  • CIMMERIANS – real people. In Homer’s time lived north of black sea – was to ancient Greeks really the end of the world. Mythologized by Homer – extreme west by river Ocean which separated the land of the living from the dd. Place where sun never shines and ghosts could be approached.

  • Necromancy: “divination by means of the dead”. Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • Psyche (pl. psychai)

  • Dig pit & pour in Honey, milk, wine, barely-water, blood of slaughtered sheep. Summon ghosts

  • Many - Minimal sensual capacity or intelligence

  • Only enough to sense the blood and enough will to want it.


  • Elpenor (?) – comrade Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • Teiresias/Tiresias – seer

  • Antiklea (mother)

  • Heroines, esp. Epikaste (Iokasta)

  • Comrades: Agamemnon, Achilles, Aias (Ajax)

  • Heroes

  • Active: Minos, Orion, Herakles

  • Punished: Tityos, Tantalos, Sisyphus.

  • Cf. Ixion, Danaids, Oknos (Ocnus)

  • ACHILLES – reply – summarizes Greek pessimistic view.


Monsters2
Monsters: Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • Size: change from Natural size of things

  • Multiplication of body parts or fewer of them

  • Blend parts of different naturally occurring animals

  • Manufacturing – add some feature that doesn’t occur in nature (skin made out of metal).


Heroes1
HEROES Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • Hero type:

  • Men and women of the prehistoric period – ‘Heroic Age’

  • Protectors

  • Hera – protectress

  • Great person of old

  • Usually with one mortal and one divine parent

  • Normally associated with a Greek deed.

  • Eventually died and had a ‘hero-cult’ after he died. Remains considered especially powerful.

  • Similar to modern idea of hero.

    • In story – protagonist – most important.

    • Physical strength

    • Skill

    • Cleverness


  • Hesiod: timeline: Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

    • Chaos  Establishment of cosmic order (cosmos)  creation of humans  loss of paradise/degradation  Great Deluge  second creation of heroes  Age of Heroes  Historical Period.

  • Hero story

  • Biography, birth + Growth  dth.

  • Local reference

  • One mortal, one immortal parent

  • Often fits int o pattern “2 father figures”


Hero pattern1
Hero Pattern Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • Birth

  • (blank)

  • quest

  • success

  • princess

  • revenge

  • rule

  • death

  • 2 father figures: ‘mentor’ or Ooften role analogous to good or bad father: One will be beneficent or passive and one will be hostile.


Hero pattern continued
Hero Pattern Continued. Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • Birth

    • Usually born under unusual circumstances

    • Often includes danger for baby. Birth attended by unusual circumstances.

  • Blank:

    • Stories don’t generally say anything from after the birth to middle/late teens

  • Assignment of Quest

    • At this point significant meeting with hostile father figure, usually in foreign land, who assigns quest in veiled attempt to destroy him.

  • Success

    • Hero then is successful.

  • Then gets foreign bride – normally a princess.

  • Revenge:

    • Returns, confronts hostile father figure and destroys him.

  • Rule:

    • Returns and rules:

    • Either founds city or rules city.

  • Hero finally dies since he is part mortal.


Perseus
Perseus Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • Perseus

  • Hero Story


Birth
Birth Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • Grandfather = ACRISIUS king of ARGOS (a city in southern Greece.). Twin brother of Acrisius = PROETUS. Enemies since birth. Supposed to grow up to rule Argos together, instead when grew up they fought over throne. Victorious A. forced P. into exile.

  • P. became king of TIRYNS (a city in ARGOLIS, the region surrounding ARGOS. The huge blocks of stone which composed its fortifications were said to have been the result of the labor of CYCLOPS, because of their prodigious size. This belief is the origin for the modern term CYCLOPEANarchitecture.

  • Acrisius married to AGANIPPE. 1 child, daughter DANAË.

  • A. consulted an oracle, found that not only would he have no sons, but his sole male heir – the son of Danaë would kill him.

  • Locked her in underground chamber. Danaë became pregnant anyway

  • Official version of the myth: ZEUS visited Danaë in the form of a shower of gold.

  • A. found out- more than one version: some claim was immediate – alerted by cry of baby, others say Danaë and son PERSEUS spent more than a year imprisoned before they were discovered.

  • A. Put Danaë and son Perseus into a wooden chest and set them adrift on the Aegean sea.

  • Zeus guided chest to island of SERIPHUS.


Cyclopean
Cyclopean Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • Name often applied to a primitive method of prehistoric masonry construction, found throughout Greece, Italy, and the Middle East. The term is derived from Cyclopes, the mythological beings who were supposed to have built walls in this manner. The Cyclopean technique involves the use of huge, irregular boulders, carefully fitted together without the use of mortar, thereby creating a massive wall with an uneven face. These walls were characteristic of Mycenaean civilization. Remaining examples are found at Knossos, Mycenae, Tiryns, and Athens. There are many Cyclopean walls in Etruscan and Anatolian architecture. Somewhat similar examples are seen in China, Japan, and Peru.


Titian ca 1553

Titian (ca. 1553) Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.


J gossaert early 16th century

J. Gossaert (early 16th century) Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.


Rembrandt ca 1646

Rembrandt (ca. 1646) Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.


Danaë. Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

Waterhouse, 1892.

Stolen 1947.


Gustav klimt 1907 08

Gustav Klimt (1907-08) Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.


Seriphus
SERIPHUS Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • Brothers

  • POLYDECTES – king

  • DICTYS – poor fisherman

  • Dictys caught chest in his net and rescued Danaë and Perseus. Took them into his home claiming that they were distant kin (actually true – (D. and P. were descendants of DANAUS, a former king of Argos).


Polydectes as 2 nd hostile father figure
Polydectes as 2 Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.nd Hostile Father Figure?

  • P. fell in love with Danaë, asked her to marry him but she refused. Perseus full grown and strong, so he was afraid to do anything rash and pretended to accept her rejection, but in actuality did not stop scheming.

  • Soon after P. announced his intention to ask for the hand of HIPPODAMEIA, a daughter of king OENOMAUS of PISA (city in southwestern Greece).

  • P. arranged banquet in which each guest traditionally woulfd have brought a gift for the bride to be – P. Demanded that each of his subjects bring a horse as a gift. Bad for Perseus – poor, had no horses. P. might have have hoped that Perseus would have been shamed into fleeing the kingdom. Perseus said that instead of a horse he would bring anything P. wanted, even if it was the head of Medusa. P. accepted – Task impossible to survive.


The quest
The QUEST Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • P. arranged banquet in which each guest traditionally would have brought a gift for the bride to be – P. Demanded that each of his subjects bring a horse as a gift. Bad for Perseus – poor, had no horses. P. might have have hoped that Perseus would have been shamed into fleeing the kingdom. Perseus said that instead of a horse he would bring anything P. wanted, even if it was the head of Medusa. P. accepted – Task impossible to survive.


Medusa
MEDUSA Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • Version 1

  • One of three monstrous sisters called the Gorgons.

    • EURYALE

    • STHENO

    • MEDUSA

  • Of the three only Medusa could be killed – other two were immortal.

  • Features of Gorgons

    • Serpents for hair

    • Eyes that turned anyone who looked upon them into stone.

    • Huge snake-like tongues

    • Teeth as long and sharp as the tusks of a wild boars.

    • Bodies covered in scales so hard that no weapsns could pierce them.

    • Golden wings.

    • Claws forged of brass.

  • Version 2

  • Once a beautiful maiden. Turned away all suitors, but finally consented to Poseidon – either in a field of flowers or in the shrine of Athena.

  • Angered the goddess – either jealous of M’s beauty, or angered that she had defiled the temple of the goddess. Athena transformed the once beautiful Medusa into the monster we all know and love.


Modern portrayals
Modern Portrayals Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.


A few major problems
A few major problems: Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • To kill Medusa the slayer must approach her lair without being seen by her or her two sisters.

  • In order not be ‘petrified’ would have to slay her without looking at her face.

  • After the deed would need to escape with tremendous speed to escape the two remaining winged monsters.


  • Perseus had help from ATHENA. Necromantic rite. Idea that the dead know more – can get to the secrets.

  • Brought Perseus to a cave on SERIPHUS where some of the NAIADS lived. Lent to Perseus

  • Winged sandals

  • The helmet of darkness (or cap of Hades) to make him invisible.

  • A purse or pouch to carry the head.

  • HERMES then gave Perseus a sword (or sickle) of ADAMANT – an unbreakable material (metallic stone?).


  • Perseus then traveled to a cave on the mountain where ATLAS stood. In this cave lived the GRAEAE “gray women” the sisters of the Gorgons. These were ancient (witches?) who had one eyes among them had gray hair from birth. Passed the eye around. Perseus hid and waited until one of the sisters took out the eye and handed it over to another – the only moment when they were all blind. Grabbed they eye and held it, refused to give it back until they told him the location of the Gorgon’s lair. After getting the information he needed, he tossed the eye into lake TRITONIS and took off towards the Gorgons.


Sucess
SUCESS stood. In this cave lived the GRAEAE “gray women” the sisters of the Gorgons. These were ancient (witches?) who had one eyes among them had gray hair from birth. Passed the eye around. Perseus hid and waited until one of the sisters took out the eye and handed it over to another – the only moment when they were all blind. Grabbed they eye and held it, refused to give it back until they told him the location of the Gorgon’s lair. After getting the information he needed, he tossed the eye into lake TRITONIS and took off towards the Gorgons.

  • Lair of Medusa.

  • At the end of the earth in a land where neither sun or moon ever shone.

  • Dozens of stone figures – remains of those who had ventured there and glimpsed on e of the Gorgons.

  • Had polished shield before coming.

  • Used it to spy on the Gorgons without looking directly at hem.

  • Waited until they fell asleep.

  • Then still using reflection in shield, cut off the head of Medusa, put the head in the pouch and flew away. Medusa’s sisters could not see Perseus and their pursuit soon stopped.

  • ((One version – Medusa still pregnant at time of death – offspring sprang from her neck CHRYSAOR – renowned as a warrior, and PEGASUS, the famous winged horse.)


Temple of artemis at corcyra ca 590 b c
Temple of Artemis at Corcyra (ca. 590 B.C.) stood. In this cave lived the GRAEAE “gray women” the sisters of the Gorgons. These were ancient (witches?) who had one eyes among them had gray hair from birth. Passed the eye around. Perseus hid and waited until one of the sisters took out the eye and handed it over to another – the only moment when they were all blind. Grabbed they eye and held it, refused to give it back until they told him the location of the Gorgon’s lair. After getting the information he needed, he tossed the eye into lake TRITONIS and took off towards the Gorgons.


Canova 1801
Canova (1801) stood. In this cave lived the GRAEAE “gray women” the sisters of the Gorgons. These were ancient (witches?) who had one eyes among them had gray hair from birth. Passed the eye around. Perseus hid and waited until one of the sisters took out the eye and handed it over to another – the only moment when they were all blind. Grabbed they eye and held it, refused to give it back until they told him the location of the Gorgon’s lair. After getting the information he needed, he tossed the eye into lake TRITONIS and took off towards the Gorgons.


Cellini
Cellini stood. In this cave lived the GRAEAE “gray women” the sisters of the Gorgons. These were ancient (witches?) who had one eyes among them had gray hair from birth. Passed the eye around. Perseus hid and waited until one of the sisters took out the eye and handed it over to another – the only moment when they were all blind. Grabbed they eye and held it, refused to give it back until they told him the location of the Gorgon’s lair. After getting the information he needed, he tossed the eye into lake TRITONIS and took off towards the Gorgons.


  • Flew back towards SERIPHUS. Journey was a long one – needed to make several stops on way – very eventful.

  • Hesperides – (Only OVID)

  • Stopped there first – asked as a son of Zeus if he could rest there

  • BUT

  • Titan Atlas who ruled Hesperides, knew prophecy of Titaness Themis that a son of Zeus would steal the golden aplples. Fiercly guarded them. Insulted Persues, denied his parentage and rudely tried to force him out. P. asked Atlas if he would like to see what was in the bag – turned his own head away and lifted out the head, which turned Atlas to stone – into the mountain MOUNT ATLAS  head still had petrifaction power after death of Medusa. Most storytellers discount this, as one of the labors of Heracles was to bring back the golden apples and he had to trick Atlas to do this.


Andromeda
ANDROMEDA needed to make several stops on way – very eventful.

  • As Perseus flew over the coast of ETHIOPIA on his way home he saw figure of a woman chained to a rock below – thought that she was a carved marble statue at first, then saw that she was crying. Got her story:

  • Name was ANDROMEDA the daughter of CEPHEUS (depending on source the king of either ETHIOPIA or JOPPA, city of the Levantine sea-coast) and CASSIOPEIA. C. had boasted that she was more beautiful than the Nereids, the sea nymphs that served as the god’s attendants. To punish Casseopia’s vanity, Poseidon had flooded the kingdom and sent a sea monster to ravage Ethiopia.

  • Advice of oracle – Adromeda chained to rock as sacrifice.

  • Begged for help from Perseus.

  • Got promise from C. to reward him with A.’s hand in marriage and a kingdom if he succeeded. C. agreed.

  • When sea monster surfaced P. dived onto its back and following a raging battle that stained the sea red with blood, killed it.

  • Freed Andromeda from her chains and brought her to her parents – then damanded that C. live up to his end of the bargain.


Paul veronese

Paul Veronese needed to make several stops on way – very eventful.



Rubens

Rubens 40)






Problem
Problem 40)

  • A. already promised to C.’s brother PHINEUS – a detail C. had mitted to mention. Phineus had not lifted a hand to save Andromeda, but still refused to step aside for her savior. Cepheus properly grateful, kept his promise to Perseus by arranging a quick wedding. Phineus interrupted the wedding with an army behind him to assert his prior claim on Andromeda. However, even outnumbered Persues emerged victorious, by using the head of Medusa to turn Phineus’ his rival and allies to stone.


Marriage
Marriage 40)

  • Perseus then married Andromeda. Unlike most of gods and heroes of Classical mythology remained faithfull to her.

  • Couple remained with her parents for a year after their marriage, Andromeda gave birth to their first son PERSES.

  • When Perseus resumed his journey back to Seriphus, he and Andromeda left infant Perses with Cepheus – since Cepheus had no heirs Perses would inherit his kingdom – Perses descendants would travel east and rule Persia, the land that was named after Perses.


Returned to seriphus
Returned to Seriphus. 40)

  • Persues found his mother taking refuge at the altar of the gods. As soon as Perseus had left on his quest King Polydectes had tried to attack her, and his brother Dictys had taken her to the altar a sacred ground where Polydectes dared not assault her.

  • Perseus headed for the palace and found the king at a banquet, Perseus burst in and announced that he had brought the promised gift. Polydectes challenged his word and his honor – Persues then averted his eyes and held up the head turning Polydectes and all his guests into stone. Persues then gave Dictys the throne vacated by the petrifaction of Polydectes. He then returned the borrowed weapons to Hermes. In gratitude to Athena Persues mounted his trophy, the head of Medusa on the shield of the goddess – the head, surrounded by snake’s heads on the center of her AEGIS, became Athena’s most distinctive emblem.



Heracles
Heracles 40)

  • Son of Zeus

  • ALCMENE


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