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An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 9e James M. Rubenstein. Chapter 13. Urban Patterns. Geog 1050 Victoria Alapo, Instructor. Urban Settlements. Urbanization Worldwide Increasing urban percentage & populations

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Chapter 13

An Introduction to Human Geography

The Cultural Landscape, 9e

James M. Rubenstein

Chapter 13

Urban Patterns

Geog 1050

Victoria Alapo, Instructor


Urban settlements
Urban Settlements

  • Urbanization Worldwide

    • Increasing urban percentage & populations

    • Megacities: cities of 10 million or more people (World Bank)

    • City-States: a city that is also a country. E.g. Singapore, Vatican City, and many old kingdoms of the world.


Urban settlements1
Urban Settlements

  • Urbanization in U.S.

    • United States: Define Megalopolis (see next slide). The Boston–Washington corridor contains about one-quarter (25%) of U.S. population on 2% of U.S. land area!


Most concentrated area for u s cities megalopolis
Most Concentrated Area for U.S. Cities: Megalopolis

The Boston–Washington corridor contains about one-quarter of U.S. population – on 2% of U.S. land area! This area is called Megalopolis.


Large cities
Large Cities

Cities with 2 million or more people. Many qualifying cities are NOT shown.


Note that of the 50 largest cities in the world, 5 of them are in Africa.


Urban structure
Urban Structure

  • 4 models of urban structure (Mostly North American)

    • Concentric zone model

    • Sector model

    • Multiple nuclei model

    • Peripheral model

    • Define & describe CBD: Central Business District i.e. downtown. Unique characteristics.


Concentric zone model
Concentric Zone Model

In the concentric zone model, a city grows in a series of rings surrounding the CBD.


Sector model
Sector Model

In the sector model, a city grows in a series of wedges or

corridors extending out from the CBD.


Multiple nuclei model
Multiple Nuclei Model

The multiple nuclei model views a city as a collection of individual centers,

around which different people and activities cluster.


Peripheral model of urban areas
Peripheral Model of Urban Areas

The central city is surrounded by a ring road, around which are suburban areas

and edge cities, shopping malls, office parks, industrial areas, and service complexes.


Differences between u s and european cities
Differences Between U.S. and European Cities

Top professionals in Glasgow, Scotland, are more likely to live near the center of the city,

in contrast to most U.S. cities, where the wealthy mostly live in suburbs.


Suburban development in the u s and u k
Suburban Development in the U.S. and U.K.

New housing in the U.K. is likely to be in planned new towns (in a compact manner).

I also noticed this while flying over Canada. On the other hand, growth in the U.S. occurs

in discontinuous developments. See photo and caption on pg 455.


Latin american city model
Latin American City Model

In many Latin American cities, the

wealthy live in the inner city and in a

sector extending along a commercial

spine, while the poor live on the

outskirts of the city (or “suburbs”).

The Latin American model is in

direct contrast to the U.S., where the

poor tend to live close to downtown,

and the wealthy live in the suburbs.


There were many Pre-Colonial Cities in Africa, many of which STILL do exist as the modern cities of today. This photo shows the ruins of the Great Zimbabwe, which existed prior to the colonial period. Some pre-colonial cities that still exist today include Ibadan, Kano, etc (Nigeria); Timbuktu (Mali); Kumasi (Ghana), and so on.


The dual city phenomenon
The “Dual City” Phenomenon STILL do exist as the modern cities of today. This photo shows the ruins of the Great Zimbabwe, which existed prior to the colonial period. Some pre-colonial cities that still exist today include Ibadan, Kano, etc (Nigeria); Timbuktu (Mali); Kumasi (Ghana), and so on.

  • Most African cities tend to be “dual cities”. This is mainly as a result of the presence of a traditional city center and colonial/modern (Western) city center in existence within the same city.

  • So, most large cities in Africa tend to have “two downtowns” – the Traditional and Modern.

  • This phenomenon was first recognized by Professor Mabogunje (1968), at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria.


F s fez morocco
Fès STILL do exist as the modern cities of today. This photo shows the ruins of the Great Zimbabwe, which existed prior to the colonial period. Some pre-colonial cities that still exist today include Ibadan, Kano, etc (Nigeria); Timbuktu (Mali); Kumasi (Ghana), and so on.(Fez), Morocco

This pre-colonial old city in North Africa has narrow winding streets and dense population.

The French laid out a new district to the west with a geometric street pattern

(thus showing a “dual city” pattern).


The following few slides contain photographs of some of today’s African cities (unfortunately usually not seen in popular media).

This photo shows a section of Nairobi, Kenya.


The City of Abidjan, Cote d’ Ivoire (Ivory Coast) today’s African cities (unfortunately usually not seen in popular media).


Top: Windhoek, Namibia today’s African cities (unfortunately usually not seen in popular media).

Bottom: Nairobi, Kenya


Modern cairo egypt africa
Modern Cairo, Egypt (Africa) today’s African cities (unfortunately usually not seen in popular media).


Lagos island eko nigeria
Lagos Island (Eko), Nigeria today’s African cities (unfortunately usually not seen in popular media).


Asian ho chi minh city vietnam
Asian: Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam today’s African cities (unfortunately usually not seen in popular media).

In Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon), the French demolished the previous city and

replaced it with a colonial design with boulevards and public squares.


Inner cities
Inner Cities today’s African cities (unfortunately usually not seen in popular media).

  • Inner-city problems:

    • Deterioration of property due to “white flight”. For definition of white flight, please see pg 228 of text.

    • Culture of poverty

    • Underclass; homeless, see pg 449.

    • Urban renewal programs and public housing have solved some problems, but not all.

      Gentrification is when wealthy & middle class people move back into downtown. Any examples in Omaha?


Problems of urbanization
Problems of Urbanization today’s African cities (unfortunately usually not seen in popular media).

  • Problems in foreign countries

    • Primate Cities: a large city 2ce as large as the next largest city, usually with a large proportion of the national city population, e.g. Mexico City, Lagos (Nigeria), Bangkok (Thailand), Paris (France), London (England), etc.

    • Cities usually become ‘primate’ (large) because too much attention is given to that particular city at the expense of others. Therefore it grows at the expense of other towns, and ends up drawing more immigrants from the countryside who are looking for work. This then leads to problems shown on next slide, especially in developing countries.


The problems of urbanization include urban primacy, housing, sanitation, traffic, unemployment, inadequate services, etc. Problems in this city (Lagos) are similar to those you will find in South America or Asia. See video.


Public transport in brussels
Public Transport in Brussels sanitation, traffic, unemployment, inadequate services, etc. Problems in this city (Lagos) are similar to those you will find in South America or Asia. See video.

In your textbook, this figure of Brussels (Belgium) illustrates the integration of heavy rail and

light rail in public transport, which might reduce the need for driving individual cars.

New York City is trying to work in that direction too.


Problems of suburbs and some solutions
Problems of Suburbs (and Some Solutions) sanitation, traffic, unemployment, inadequate services, etc. Problems in this city (Lagos) are similar to those you will find in South America or Asia. See video.

  • Local government fragmentation

    • Numerous small independent local governments e.g. Elkhorn (before annexation), are a problem for U.S. urban planning. No-one wants to plan in a coordinated fashion (unless they’re annexed).

    • Solutions:

    • To ease this burden on planning, many cities in the U.S. are consolidating into one large Metropolitanarea, e.g. Lexington & Louisville, in Kentucky both have “metro areas” consisting of numerous former small towns that are no longer independent.

    • Smart Growth: legislation to limit suburban sprawl and to preserve farmland.


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