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Unit 1 Review. Water and Carbon are life. Bonds, elements and H 2 0 Oh my!. Macromolecules 101. Name that molecule. Macromolecules 201. 10 10 10 10 10 20 20 20 20 20 30 30 30 30 30 40 40 40 40 40 50 50 50 50 50. O. H. H. H. H. H. C. H. 1 - 10. Type of bond illustrated…. O.

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Bonds, elements and H 2 0 Oh my!

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Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

Unit 1 Review

Water and Carbon are life

Bonds, elements and H20 Oh my!

Macromolecules 101

Name that molecule

Macromolecules 201

1010101010

2020202020

3030303030

40 4040 4040

5050505050


Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

O

H

H

H

H

H

C

H

1 - 10

Type of bond illustrated…


A 1 10

O

H

H

H

H

H

C

H

a 1-10

Covalent –

sharing of a pair of electrons


Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

1-20

These 4 elements make up

96% of living organisms


A1 20

a1-20

Oxygen

Carbon

Hydrogen

Nitrogen


Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

1-30

  • 12C  normal ( protons, neutrons)

  • 13C  ( protons, neutrons)

  • 14C  ( protons, neutrons)

  • These atoms represent a carbon in different forms called __________________.


A1 30

a1-30

  • 12C  normal (6 protons, 6 neutrons)

  • 13C  (6 protons, 7neutrons)

  • 14C  (6 protons, 8 neutrons)

  • These atoms represent a carbon in different forms called Isotopes


Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

1-40

–

What type of bond is shown between these Water molecules??

+

H

–

+

H

+

–

 –

+

Figure 3.2


A1 40

–

+

Hydrogenbonds

H

–

+

H

+

–

 –

+

Figure 3.2

a1-40


Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

1-50

Battery acid has a pH of 1

And rain water a pH of 5.

How many times more acidic is

Battery acid compared to

Rain water??

Which has a higher proportion

Of OH- ions??


A1 50

pH Scale

0

1

Battery acid

2

Digestive (stomach)

juice, lemon juice

Vinegar, beer, wine,

cola

3

Increasingly Acidic

[H+] > [OH–]

4

Tomato juice

5

Black coffee Rainwater

6

Urine

Neutral

[H+] = [OH–]

7

Pure water

Human blood

8

Seawater

9

10

Increasingly Basic

[H+] < [OH–]

Milk of magnesia

11

Household ammonia

12

Household bleach

13

Oven cleaner

14

Figure 3.8

a1-50

Battery acid has a pH of 1

And rain water a pH of 5.

How many times more acidic is

Battery acid compared to

Rain water??

10,000

Which has a higher proportion

Of OH- ions??

Rain water


Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

Figure 3.4

2-10

What property of water is illustrated below…


A2 10

A2-10

  • Surface tension

    • Is a measure of how hard it is to break the surface of a liquid

    • Is related to cohesion


Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

Hydrogen bond

Liquid water

Hydrogen bonds constantly break and re-form

Ice

Hydrogen bonds are stable

Figure 3.5

2-20

Which is more dense liquid

Water or ice?? Why?


A2 20

A2-20

  • The hydrogen bonds in ice

    • Are more “ordered” than in liquid water, making ice less dense


Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

2-30

Water can dissolve anything

That is ____________.


A2 30

Negative oxygen regions of polar water molecules are attracted to sodium cations (Na+).

Na+

+

+

+

Na+

Positive hydrogen regions of water molecules cling to chloride anions (Cl–).

+

+

Cl –

Cl–

+

+

+

Figure 3.6

A2-30

  • The different regions of the polar water molecule can interact with ionic compounds called solutes and dissolve them


Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

2-40

______________ are molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties


A2 40

H

H

H

C

H

H

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

(a) Structural isomers

C

C

C

C

H

C

H

H

C

H

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

X

X

X

C

C

C

C

(b) Geometric isomers

X

H

H

H

CO2H

CO2H

C

C

(c) Enantiomers

H

H

NH2

NH2

CH3

CH3

Figure 4.7 A-C

A2-40

  • Isomers

    • Are molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties


Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

2-50

  • Name that functional group…

O

OH

C

OH

O

H

N

P

OH

O

H

OH


A2 50

A2-50

Hydroxyl Carboxyl

O

OH

C

OH

Amine Phosphate

O

H

N

P

OH

O

H

OH


Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

3-10

1

HO

H

3

2

H

HO

Unlinked monomer

Short polymer

H2O

What processes are happening here??

1

2

3

4

HO

H

Longer polymer

1

3

HO

4

2

H

H2O

1

2

H

HO

3

H

HO


A3 10

1

3

HO

4

2

H

1

HO

H

3

2

H

HO

Unlinked monomer

Short polymer

Hydrolysis adds a watermolecule, breaking a bond

H2O

Dehydration removes a watermolecule, forming a new bond

H2O

1

2

3

4

HO

H

1

2

H

HO

3

H

HO

Longer polymer

(b) Hydrolysis of a polymer

(a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer

Figure 5.2A

Figure 5.2B

A3-10


Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

3-20

State the empirical formula for a carbohydrate. Explain what such a formula means.


A3 20

A3-20

  • (CH2O)n Carbon, Hydrogen, & Oxygen


Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

3-30

Which one of the 4 types of macromolecules is shown below…

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

C

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

O

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

Figure 5.11


A3 30

A3-30

Lipid – AKA - Fat molecule (triacylglycerol)

t

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

C

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

O

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H


Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

3-40

What parts make up a Neutral Fat

(Triglycerides or Triacylglyycerols)


A3 40

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

C

H

O H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

HO

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

OH

Fatty acid

(palmitic acid)

H

C

OH

H

Glycerol

(a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a fat

Ester linkage

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

C

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

O

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

Figure 5.11

(b) Fat molecule (triacylglycerol)

A3-40

1 glycerol

3 fatty acid molecules


Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

3-50

What structure is shown??

What side is hydrophobic?

What side is hydrophilic?

Where in our bodies is this

molecule VERY important?


A3 50

+

CH2

Choline

N(CH3)3

CH2

O

Phosphate

Hydrophilic head

P

O

O

O

CH2

CH

CH2

Glycerol

O

O

C

O

C

O

Fatty acids

Hydrophilic

head

Hydrophobic tails

Hydrophobic

tails

(c) Phospholipid

symbol

(b) Space-filling model

Figure 5.13

(a) Structural formula

A3-50

What structure is shown?? Phospholipid

What side is hydrophobic?Fatty Acid tail

What side is hydrophilic?Phosphate head

Where in our bodies is this molecule VERY important?Cell Membrane


Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

4-10

Water “Loving”

Water “Hating”

What terms are given to

molecules that have an

affinity for or against

water molecules?


A4 10

A4-10

Hydrophilic

Hydrophobic


Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

4-20

Name 3 significant

uses for proteins


A4 20

A4-20

  • Enzymes  reactions

  • Energy  although not preferred

  • Immunity  antibodies

  • Structure / Support  muscle, tendon, etc.

  • Hormones  insulin, epinephrine, prolactin

  • Carriers  hemoglobin carries O2


Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

4-30

What structure is shown below?

What are the 2 functional groups that are found in all of these structures?


A4 30

A4-30

Amino Acid

Amine group (NH2)Carboxyl group (COOH)


Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

4-40

Describe the 1st 2 of the 4 levels of organization possible in a protein,

and explain what forces are involved at each level.


A4 40

A4-40

Primarysequence of amino acids

  • held together by peptide bonds

Secondary segments of the polypeptide fold and coil in patterns

  • alpha helices

  • beta sheets

  • What forces?

    • H-Bonds


  • Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

    4-50

    Describe the 3rd level of the 4 levels of organization possible in a protein,

    and explain what forces are involved in that level.


    A4 50

    Hydrophobic interactions and van der Waalsinteractions

    CH

    CH2

    CH2

    H3C

    CH3

    OH

    Polypeptidebackbone

    H3C

    CH3

    Hyrdogenbond

    CH

    O

    HO

    C

    CH2

    CH2

    S

    S

    CH2

    Disulfide bridge

    O

    -O

    C

    CH2

    CH2

    NH3+

    Ionic bond

    A4-50

    Tertiary bends and twists cause a three dimensional shape.

    • a. nonpolar R groups group together away from the polypeptide

    • b. H-bonds can form between polar R groups

    • c. 2 sulfhydryl groups can form a disulfide bridge

    • d. charged R groups can attract or repel


    Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

    5-10

    What type of macromolecule is shown??

    What 3 monomers make up the macromolecule??


    A5 10

    A5-10

    • Nucleic Acid

      • 5-carbon sugar

      • Phosphate

      • Nitrogenous base

    • DNA & RNA


    Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

    5-20

    What specific type of macromolecule is shown??


    A5 20

    A5-20

    Lipid-

    saturated fatty acid


    Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

    5-30

    What specific type of monomer are shown??

    What type of macromolecule would a polymer of these structures produce?

    Why might these molecules produce a smelly odor?


    A5 30

    A5-30

    Monomer – Amino Acid

    Polymer – Protein

    They contain sulfur


    Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

    5-40

    What specific type of structure is shown??

    What macromolecule does this structure represent?


    A5 40

    A5-40

    What specific type of structure is shown??

    Phospholipid

    What macromolecule does this structure represent?

    Lipid


    Bonds elements and h 2 0 oh my

    5-50

    Where on this molecule is the peptide bond that is holding the 2 amino acids together??


    A5 50

    A5-50

    C.


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