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Where do our ideas come from?. Make Your Own Observations. Take 10 minutes to observe people outside Come up with 3 research questions Write down the 3 questions on a piece of paper Write down the observation that led to these question OBSERVATION QUESTION. Make Your Own Observations.

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Make your own observations
Make Your Own Observations

  • Take 10 minutes to observe people outside

  • Come up with 3 research questions

  • Write down the 3 questions on a piece of paper

  • Write down the observation that led to these question

    OBSERVATION QUESTION


Make your own observations1
Make Your Own Observations

  • What did you come up with?

OBSERVATION QUESTION


What s next
What's next?

  • Plausibility stage

    • Is the idea worthy of actual testing?

  • Acceptability stage

    • Mold the plausible idea into a working hypothesis







Positive correlation3
Positive Correlation

.

.

.

.

.

r = .64




Negative correlation2
Negative Correlation

.

.

.

r = - .85

.

.



Zero correlation1
Zero Correlation

.

.

.

.

.

r = .00


Correlation coefficient
Correlation Coefficient

  • The sign of a correlation (+ or -) only tells you the direction of the relationship

  • The value of the correlation only tells you about the size of the relationship (i.e., how close the scores are to the regression line)

  • Correlations and cause and effect




Practice
Practice

  • Do you think the following variables are positively, negatively or uncorrelated to each other?

  • Alcohol consumption & Driving skills

  • Miles of running a day & speed in a foot race

  • Height & GPA

  • Forearm length & foot length



Practice1
Practice

  • 1) Complete Questionnaire #1

  • Do you like going to art museums?

  • Do you talk to a lot of different people at parties?

  • What time did you wake up this morning (the hour)?


Big five inventory
Big-Five Inventory

  • Big-Five Inventory


E

1, 11, 16, 26, 36 R 6, 21, 31

A

7, 17, 22, 32, 42 R 2,12, 27, 37

C

3, 13, 28, 33, 38 R 8, 18, 23, 43

N

4, 14, 19, 29, 39 R 9, 24, 34

O

5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 44 R 35, 41

R

1 = 5

2 = 4

3 = 3

4 = 2

5 = 1


Agreeableness
Agreeableness

Trust

Straightforwardness

Altruism

Compliance

Modesty

Tender-mindedness

Obi-Wan Kenobi -- This loyal, kind, and honorable young Jedi is a good man.

Emperor Palpatine -- An evil, power hungry tyrant, he is manipulative, evil, and ruthless.


Extraversion
Extraversion

Warmth

Gregariousness

Assertiveness

Activity

Excitement seeking

Positive emotions

Lando Calrissian -- An energetic, sociable man. He is adventure seeking, talkative, and socially skilled.

Wampas -- reclusive creatures of the ice planet Hoth. They are rarely seen & generally shy, leading a solitary existence


Conscientiousness

Competence

Order

Dutifulness

Achievement striving

Self-discipline

Deliberation

Conscientiousness

Admiral Ackbar -- This rebel Admiral is renowned for his great powers of organization, responsibility, and administrative abilities. He is individual who can be relied upon.

Han Solo -- This disheveled and scruffy smuggler leads a reckless and haphazard life, with little respect for rules and procedures.


Neuroticism
Neuroticism

Anxiety

Angry hostility

Depression

Self-consciousness

Impulsiveness

Vulnerability

Princess Leia -- A confident & calm individual who does not crack under pressure (e.g.,. when being threatened by Lord Vader). She is brave and relaxed, even when in great danger (e.g., when disguising herself as a bounty hunter to gain access to Jabba the Hutt’s palace).

Tusken warriors -- These inhabitants of Tatooine are unpredictable, temperamental, and excitable, and known to be especially moody.


Openness to experience
Openness to Experience

Fantasy

Aesthetics

Feelings

Actions

Ideas

Values

Yoda -- This wise, philosophical, and thoughtful Jedi master challenges the establishment, encouraging his pupils to unlearn what they have learned and see the world in novel, creative ways.

C-3PO -- This droid versed in political protocol of thousands of cultures is governed by rules and prefers not to meddle with the ways and traditions of his hosts.


The big five
The Big Five

  • Also known as the Five-Factor Model

  • Extraversion

  • Agreeableness

  • Conscientiousness

  • Neuroticism

  • Openness to Experience

  • OCEAN


Next

Collect data

Enter data

Analyze data

=CORREL(Array1, Array2)

=CORREL (A2:A9, G2:G9)


Observational research
Observational Research

  • Steps

  • 1) Limit your observations

    • What do you want to do? What is your hypothesis?

  • 2) Figure out how to code your observations

    • Will you use a videotape, questionnaire, EAR, etc.?

  • 3) Collect your data

    • Just do it!

  • 4) Create a coding system

    • How will you quantify your data?

  • 5) Analyze your data

    • What do the data tell you?


  • Observational research1
    Observational Research

    • Types of Observational Research

    • Laboratory Research

    • Internet Research

    • Naturalistic Research


    Observational research in the laboratory
    Observational Research in the Laboratory

    • Pros:

    • Controlled environment

    • Can control for extraneous variables (random assignment)

    • Cons:

    • Not realistic


    Outline
    Outline

    • Observational Research in the Laboratory

    • 1) Examples of observational lab research

    • 2) P II: Single behavior studies

    • 3) P III: Multiple behavior studies


    Observational research2
    Observational Research

    • Steps

    • 1) Limit your observations

      • What do you want to do? What is your hypothesis?

  • 2) Figure out how to code your observations

    • Will you use a videotape, questionnaire, EAR, etc.?

  • 3) Collect your data

    • Just do it!

  • 4) Create a coding system

    • How will you quantify your data?

  • 5) Analyze your data

    • What do the data tell you?



  • Concrete examples
    Concrete examples person affect the behavior of another person?


    Abstract examples
    Abstract examples person affect the behavior of another person?


    Interpersonal theory
    Interpersonal Theory person affect the behavior of another person?

    • Leary’s complementarity

      • Interpersonal behaviors tend to initiate or invite reciprocal interpersonal behaviors from the “other” person in the interaction

    • Act the same on “warmth”

      • Warmth encourages warmth

      • Coldness encourages coldness

    • Act the opposite on “dominance”

      • Dominance encourages submission

      • Submission encourages dominance


    Method
    Method person affect the behavior of another person?

    • Participates

      • 79 males; 79 females


    Tasks
    Tasks person affect the behavior of another person?

    • Each participant interacted in three different situations with an opposite sex stranger


    Coding behaviors
    Coding Behaviors person affect the behavior of another person?

    • For each interaction, social behaviors were coded by four different judges

    • Example: Dominance behaviors

      • “Expresses warmth”

      • “Exhibits social skills”

      • “Expresses criticism”

      • “Expresses hostility”

    • Example: Warmth behaviors

      • “Tries to control the interaction”

      • “Speaks in a loud voice”

      • “Seeks reassurance”

      • “Expresses insecurity”


    Results
    Results person affect the behavior of another person?

    • Warmth

      r = .45

    • Dominance

      r = -.39


    Observational research3
    Observational Research person affect the behavior of another person?

    • Steps

    • 1) Limit your observations

      • I wonder how our behaviors affect the behaviors of our interaction partners

  • 2) Figure out how to code your observations

    • I will videotape these behaviors

  • 3) Collect your data

    • Participants came into a lab

  • 4) Create a coding system

    • I will use the RBQ

  • 5) Analyze your data


  • Project ii single behavioral observations
    Project II – Single behavioral observations person affect the behavior of another person?

    • Relating questionnaires to single behavioral observations in the lab.


    Questionnaire
    Questionnaire person affect the behavior of another person?


    Data sheet
    Data Sheet person affect the behavior of another person?


    Say person affect the behavior of another person?

    • “I am going out now, I won’t be back all day. If anyone comes by, just tell them I’m not here”

    • Happy

    • Sad

    • Mad

    • How good of an actor is this person?

      • Rate 1-10 (1= bad actor; 10= great actor)


    Self monitoring
    Self-Monitoring person affect the behavior of another person?

    • How much do you “monitor” your social setting and alter your behaviors accordingly

    • High SM

      • Monitor every situation

      • Look for cues how to act, alter behavior

    • Low SM

      • Consistent behavior regardless of situation


    Self monitoring1
    Self-Monitoring person affect the behavior of another person?

    • Related to smoking in youths

    • Specifically, youths who think it is normal to smoke and are high SM are 3.5 times more likely to smoke!


    Self monitoring2
    Self-Monitoring person affect the behavior of another person?

    • Other findings (just for fun):

    • Video tapped group discussion

    • High SM interview better for jobs

    • High SM more likely to lie to go on dates

    • High SM pleasure self more often

      Current question: Are high self-monitors better actors?


    Current study
    Current study person affect the behavior of another person?

    • 1) Limit your observations

      • I wonder what high SM are better actors?

  • 2) Figure out how to code your observations

    • I think I will code people acting in the class room and have them self-report their SM

  • 3) Collect your data

    • Just do it!

  • 4) Create a coding system

    • We used a simple one-item code of “acting”

  • 5) Analyze the data!


  • Excel
    Excel person affect the behavior of another person?


    Current study1
    Current study person affect the behavior of another person?

    • 1) Limit your observations

      • I wonder what high SM are better actors?

  • 2) Figure out how to code your observations

    • I think I will code people acting in the class room and have them self-report their SM

  • 3) Collect your data

    • Just do it!

  • 4) Create a coding system

    • We used a simple one-item code of “acting”

  • 5) Analyze your data

    • What did the data tell us?

    • Told us if SM was related to acting


  • Project iii multiple behavioral observations
    Project III – Multiple Behavioral Observations person affect the behavior of another person?


    Perceiving others
    Perceiving Others person affect the behavior of another person?

    • Am I:

    • Extraverted?

    • Agreeable?

    • Conscientious?

    • Open to experience?

    • Neurotic?

    • A drug user?


    Perceiving others1
    Perceiving Others person affect the behavior of another person?

    • Why do you think that?


    YOU person affect the behavior of another person?

    ME


    Talkative person affect the behavior of another person?

    YOU

    ME


    Talkative person affect the behavior of another person?

    YOU

    ME

    Hand gestures


    Assertive person affect the behavior of another person?

    Talkative

    YOU

    ME

    Hand gestures

    Energetic

    Sociable


    What behaviors does an extravert tend to express? person affect the behavior of another person?

    Assertive

    Talkative

    ME

    Hand gestures

    Energetic

    Sociable


    How can we examine this issue
    How can we examine this issue? person affect the behavior of another person?

    • 1) Limit your observations

      • I wonder what behaviors an extravert expresses?


    How can we examine this issue1
    How can we examine this issue? person affect the behavior of another person?

    • 1) Limit your observations

      • I wonder what behaviors an extravert expresses?

  • 2) Figure out how to code your observations


  • How can we examine this issue2
    How can we examine this issue? person affect the behavior of another person?

    • 1) Limit your observations

      • I wonder what behaviors an extravert expresses?

  • 2) Figure out how to code your observations

    • I think I will code people acting in an artificial setting and have people rate the behaviors they see


  • How can we examine this issue3
    How can we examine this issue? person affect the behavior of another person?

    • 1) Limit your observations

      • I wonder what behaviors an extravert expresses?

  • 2) Figure out how to code your observations

    • I think I will code people acting in an artificial setting and have people rate the behaviors they see

  • 3) Collect your data

    • Just do it!


  • Rbq questionnaire
    RBQ questionnaire person affect the behavior of another person?


    Procedure
    Procedure person affect the behavior of another person?

    • Watch three participants answer several questions

    • Obtain each participants BFI scores


    Enter data
    Enter data! person affect the behavior of another person?


    Analyze data
    Analyze data person affect the behavior of another person?

    • Excel


    How can we examine this issue4
    How can we examine this issue? person affect the behavior of another person?

    • 1) Limit your observations

      • I wonder what behaviors an extravert expresses?

  • 2) Figure out how to code your observations

    • I think I will code people acting in an artificial setting and have people rate the behaviors they see

  • 3) Collect your data

    • Just do it!


  • How many behaviors do you need to code
    How many behaviors do you need to code? person affect the behavior of another person?

    • These previous examples coded many behaviors

    • Pro:

      • Very rich data

      • Good if your not 100% sure what to expect

    • Con

      • Takes a long time

      • Can sometimes produce confusing results

    • Sometimes – if you have a specific question –you might only need to code a single behavior


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