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# Where do our ideas come from? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Where do our ideas come from?. Make Your Own Observations. Take 10 minutes to observe people outside Come up with 3 research questions Write down the 3 questions on a piece of paper Write down the observation that led to these question OBSERVATION QUESTION. Make Your Own Observations.

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• Take 10 minutes to observe people outside

• Come up with 3 research questions

• Write down the 3 questions on a piece of paper

• Write down the observation that led to these question

OBSERVATION QUESTION

• What did you come up with?

OBSERVATION QUESTION

• Plausibility stage

• Is the idea worthy of actual testing?

• Acceptability stage

• Mold the plausible idea into a working hypothesis

r = 1.00

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r = .64

r = - 1.00

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r = - .85

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r = .00

• The sign of a correlation (+ or -) only tells you the direction of the relationship

• The value of the correlation only tells you about the size of the relationship (i.e., how close the scores are to the regression line)

• Correlations and cause and effect

• Do you think the following variables are positively, negatively or uncorrelated to each other?

• Alcohol consumption & Driving skills

• Miles of running a day & speed in a foot race

• Height & GPA

• Forearm length & foot length

• 1) Complete Questionnaire #1

• Do you like going to art museums?

• Do you talk to a lot of different people at parties?

• What time did you wake up this morning (the hour)?

• Big-Five Inventory

1, 11, 16, 26, 36 R 6, 21, 31

A

7, 17, 22, 32, 42 R 2,12, 27, 37

C

3, 13, 28, 33, 38 R 8, 18, 23, 43

N

4, 14, 19, 29, 39 R 9, 24, 34

O

5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 44 R 35, 41

R

1 = 5

2 = 4

3 = 3

4 = 2

5 = 1

Trust

Straightforwardness

Altruism

Compliance

Modesty

Tender-mindedness

Obi-Wan Kenobi -- This loyal, kind, and honorable young Jedi is a good man.

Emperor Palpatine -- An evil, power hungry tyrant, he is manipulative, evil, and ruthless.

Warmth

Gregariousness

Assertiveness

Activity

Excitement seeking

Positive emotions

Lando Calrissian -- An energetic, sociable man. He is adventure seeking, talkative, and socially skilled.

Wampas -- reclusive creatures of the ice planet Hoth. They are rarely seen & generally shy, leading a solitary existence

Order

Dutifulness

Achievement striving

Self-discipline

Deliberation

Conscientiousness

Admiral Ackbar -- This rebel Admiral is renowned for his great powers of organization, responsibility, and administrative abilities. He is individual who can be relied upon.

Han Solo -- This disheveled and scruffy smuggler leads a reckless and haphazard life, with little respect for rules and procedures.

Anxiety

Angry hostility

Depression

Self-consciousness

Impulsiveness

Vulnerability

Princess Leia -- A confident & calm individual who does not crack under pressure (e.g.,. when being threatened by Lord Vader). She is brave and relaxed, even when in great danger (e.g., when disguising herself as a bounty hunter to gain access to Jabba the Hutt’s palace).

Tusken warriors -- These inhabitants of Tatooine are unpredictable, temperamental, and excitable, and known to be especially moody.

Fantasy

Aesthetics

Feelings

Actions

Ideas

Values

Yoda -- This wise, philosophical, and thoughtful Jedi master challenges the establishment, encouraging his pupils to unlearn what they have learned and see the world in novel, creative ways.

C-3PO -- This droid versed in political protocol of thousands of cultures is governed by rules and prefers not to meddle with the ways and traditions of his hosts.

• Also known as the Five-Factor Model

• Extraversion

• Agreeableness

• Conscientiousness

• Neuroticism

• Openness to Experience

• OCEAN

Collect data

Enter data

Analyze data

=CORREL(Array1, Array2)

=CORREL (A2:A9, G2:G9)

• Steps

• What do you want to do? What is your hypothesis?

• 2) Figure out how to code your observations

• Will you use a videotape, questionnaire, EAR, etc.?

• Just do it!

• 4) Create a coding system

• How will you quantify your data?

• What do the data tell you?

• Types of Observational Research

• Laboratory Research

• Internet Research

• Naturalistic Research

• Pros:

• Controlled environment

• Can control for extraneous variables (random assignment)

• Cons:

• Not realistic

• Observational Research in the Laboratory

• 1) Examples of observational lab research

• 2) P II: Single behavior studies

• 3) P III: Multiple behavior studies

• Steps

• What do you want to do? What is your hypothesis?

• 2) Figure out how to code your observations

• Will you use a videotape, questionnaire, EAR, etc.?

• Just do it!

• 4) Create a coding system

• How will you quantify your data?

• What do the data tell you?

• Concrete examples person affect the behavior of another person?

Abstract examples person affect the behavior of another person?

Interpersonal Theory person affect the behavior of another person?

• Leary’s complementarity

• Interpersonal behaviors tend to initiate or invite reciprocal interpersonal behaviors from the “other” person in the interaction

• Act the same on “warmth”

• Warmth encourages warmth

• Coldness encourages coldness

• Act the opposite on “dominance”

• Dominance encourages submission

• Submission encourages dominance

Method person affect the behavior of another person?

• Participates

• 79 males; 79 females

Tasks person affect the behavior of another person?

• Each participant interacted in three different situations with an opposite sex stranger

Coding Behaviors person affect the behavior of another person?

• For each interaction, social behaviors were coded by four different judges

• Example: Dominance behaviors

• “Expresses warmth”

• “Exhibits social skills”

• “Expresses criticism”

• “Expresses hostility”

• Example: Warmth behaviors

• “Tries to control the interaction”

• “Speaks in a loud voice”

• “Seeks reassurance”

• “Expresses insecurity”

Results person affect the behavior of another person?

• Warmth

r = .45

• Dominance

r = -.39

Observational Research person affect the behavior of another person?

• Steps

• I wonder how our behaviors affect the behaviors of our interaction partners

• 2) Figure out how to code your observations

• I will videotape these behaviors

• Participants came into a lab

• 4) Create a coding system

• I will use the RBQ

• Project II – Single behavioral observations person affect the behavior of another person?

• Relating questionnaires to single behavioral observations in the lab.

Questionnaire person affect the behavior of another person?

Data Sheet person affect the behavior of another person?

Say person affect the behavior of another person?

• “I am going out now, I won’t be back all day. If anyone comes by, just tell them I’m not here”

• Happy

• How good of an actor is this person?

• Rate 1-10 (1= bad actor; 10= great actor)

Self-Monitoring person affect the behavior of another person?

• How much do you “monitor” your social setting and alter your behaviors accordingly

• High SM

• Monitor every situation

• Look for cues how to act, alter behavior

• Low SM

• Consistent behavior regardless of situation

Self-Monitoring person affect the behavior of another person?

• Related to smoking in youths

• Specifically, youths who think it is normal to smoke and are high SM are 3.5 times more likely to smoke!

Self-Monitoring person affect the behavior of another person?

• Other findings (just for fun):

• Video tapped group discussion

• High SM interview better for jobs

• High SM more likely to lie to go on dates

• High SM pleasure self more often

Current question: Are high self-monitors better actors?

Current study person affect the behavior of another person?

• I wonder what high SM are better actors?

• 2) Figure out how to code your observations

• I think I will code people acting in the class room and have them self-report their SM

• Just do it!

• 4) Create a coding system

• We used a simple one-item code of “acting”

• 5) Analyze the data!

• Excel person affect the behavior of another person?

Current study person affect the behavior of another person?

• I wonder what high SM are better actors?

• 2) Figure out how to code your observations

• I think I will code people acting in the class room and have them self-report their SM

• Just do it!

• 4) Create a coding system

• We used a simple one-item code of “acting”

• What did the data tell us?

• Told us if SM was related to acting

• Project III – Multiple Behavioral Observations person affect the behavior of another person?

Perceiving Others person affect the behavior of another person?

• Am I:

• Extraverted?

• Agreeable?

• Conscientious?

• Open to experience?

• Neurotic?

• A drug user?

Perceiving Others person affect the behavior of another person?

• Why do you think that?

YOU person affect the behavior of another person?

ME

Talkative person affect the behavior of another person?

YOU

ME

Talkative person affect the behavior of another person?

YOU

ME

Hand gestures

Assertive person affect the behavior of another person?

Talkative

YOU

ME

Hand gestures

Energetic

Sociable

What behaviors does an extravert tend to express? person affect the behavior of another person?

Assertive

Talkative

ME

Hand gestures

Energetic

Sociable

How can we examine this issue? person affect the behavior of another person?

• I wonder what behaviors an extravert expresses?

How can we examine this issue? person affect the behavior of another person?

• I wonder what behaviors an extravert expresses?

• 2) Figure out how to code your observations

• How can we examine this issue? person affect the behavior of another person?

• I wonder what behaviors an extravert expresses?

• 2) Figure out how to code your observations

• I think I will code people acting in an artificial setting and have people rate the behaviors they see

• How can we examine this issue? person affect the behavior of another person?

• I wonder what behaviors an extravert expresses?

• 2) Figure out how to code your observations

• I think I will code people acting in an artificial setting and have people rate the behaviors they see

• Just do it!

• RBQ questionnaire person affect the behavior of another person?

Procedure person affect the behavior of another person?

• Watch three participants answer several questions

• Obtain each participants BFI scores

Enter data! person affect the behavior of another person?

Analyze data person affect the behavior of another person?

• Excel

How can we examine this issue? person affect the behavior of another person?

• I wonder what behaviors an extravert expresses?

• 2) Figure out how to code your observations

• I think I will code people acting in an artificial setting and have people rate the behaviors they see

• Just do it!

• How many behaviors do you need to code? person affect the behavior of another person?

• These previous examples coded many behaviors

• Pro:

• Very rich data

• Good if your not 100% sure what to expect

• Con

• Takes a long time

• Can sometimes produce confusing results

• Sometimes – if you have a specific question –you might only need to code a single behavior