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Hindu Art and Architecture. Sarah Modi, Sarah Mupo, Katie Murphy, Mary Petersen IB World Religions: Blue 4. Art. “The man who knows nothing of music, literature, or art is no better than a beast.”. Warning of ancient Hindu wisdom Hindus think highly of art

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Hindu art and architecture

Hindu Art and Architecture

Sarah Modi, Sarah Mupo, Katie Murphy, Mary Petersen

IB World Religions: Blue 4



“The man who knows nothing of music, literature, or art is no better than a beast.”

  • Warning of ancient Hindu wisdom

  • Hindus think highly of art

  • Art = the key to salvation of the ultimate release sought by all good Hindus

  • Art is a unity of many forms and artistic experiences very holistic


Yoga no better than a beast.”

  • Indian art in its purest form

  • A disciplined style of self-restraint and worship

  • India’s oldest indigenous “science”

  • spiritual exercise leading to the beatific vision

  • -also a psychological process of drawing oneself into the dynamics which control the universe

  • -and to ready oneself for all kinds of mental and physical activity


Yoga and artists
Yoga no better than a beast.” and Artists

  • give the craftsman his creative skill

  • inspire the artist, poet, and musician who sought spiritual enlightenment


The art
The Art no better than a beast.”

  • Hindu/ Indian artists have celebrated/ immortalized the beauty of human bodies in bronze and stone for more than 5,000 yrs

  • Art is most often associated with Hindu religion and philosophy -difficult to appreciate fully unless one has knowledge of Hindu ideals -religious urge, a looking beyond -attempt to bring down the beauty of the things above


Art con t
Art Con’t no better than a beast.”

  • Art is essentially idealistic, mystic, symbolic, and transcendental - Mere bodily strength and mundane perfections of form are never glorified in Indian art.

  • Artist is both priest and poet

  • Only by meditating on the Ultimate Perfection could the artist perceive the beauty of the Godhead


The Himalayas no better than a beast.”

  • Hindu poetry, art, and mythology, depict the sublime nature of the Himalayas

    -regarded as special revelation of divine beauty

    -seen as fitting shrine for all the gods


Philosophy of Art no better than a beast.”

  • Hindu philosophy recognizes the impossibility of human art capturing the form of God

  • Creates in Indian painting and sculpture a symbolical representation of milder, humanized (but still superhuman), divine appearances which mortal eyes can bear


Purpose of art
Purpose of Art no better than a beast.”

  • To suggest divine attributes to Indian people is the purpose of Hindu art

  • True Indian art is stripped of the superfluities and vulgarities which delight the uneducated eye - believe that Hindu art requires a higher degree of artistic understanding


Bhakti
Bhakti no better than a beast.”

  • the moving spirit of all great religious art

  • keeps Indian art alive

  • Indians believe lack of it Bhakti is what makes modern Western art so lifeless


Prominent Figures no better than a beast.”

in Hindu Art


Ganesha
Ganesha no better than a beast.”

  • the Lord of success and destroyer of evils and obstacles

  • worshipped as the god of education, knowledge, wisdom and wealth

  • one of the five prime Hindu deities


Shiva
Shiva no better than a beast.”

  • The “Great God” of yogic practice

  • Visually represented as “King of Dance”

  • most remarkable single symbol of divine powers


The lotus
The Lotus no better than a beast.”

  • Even in earliest art, lotus is fashioned as a seat or as a pedestal on which divine or sacred beings rest in a sitting or standing posture

  • Symbol of divinity of major Hindu gods

  • Brahma on the lotus flower which sprang from Vishnu’s naval


Snakes
Snakes no better than a beast.”

  • important images in Hindu art

  • Sacred to Hindus

  • seen as protectors and often featured in Hindu art as wrapped around a god


Architecture

Architecture no better than a beast.”


Overview
Overview no better than a beast.”

  • Not meant for congregational worship

  • Concentrate on religious and spiritual

  • Made from rock

  • Conservative


Overview cont d
Overview Cont’d no better than a beast.”

  • Vimana

  • Shikhara

  • Garba-griba

  • Sanctum sanctorum

  • Mandapa

  • Ardh-mandapa

  • Mandala


Temple architecture
Temple Architecture no better than a beast.”

  • Religious

    • Astronomy

    • Sacred geometry

  • Representation of macrocosm and microcosm

  • Has an inner sanctum: garba girha

  • Sanctum crowned by a shikara

    • Distinguishes the Nagra and Dravida styles


North indian styles

North Indian Styles no better than a beast.”


North indian styles1
North Indian Styles no better than a beast.”

  • Nagara style

  • From Himalayas to the Deccan

  • Shikhara – beehive shaped

    • Capotas and gavakas

    • amalaka

  • Shrine is square at center

  • Bell-shaped structure on main shrine


Jagannath Temple no better than a beast.”

Lingaraja Temple

Rajarani Temple


South indian styles

South Indian Styles no better than a beast.”


South indian style
South Indian Style no better than a beast.”

  • Dravida Style

  • Shikhara – pyramid shaped

  • Have different: ground plan; position of stone deities; decorative elements

  • Walls around whole building

  • Different types: Pallava, Chola, Pandya, Vijayanagar, Nayak


Chola no better than a beast.” - Brihdiswara Temple

Pallava – Shore Temple

Nayak – Rameswaram Temple

Pandya - Chidambaram


Historical development
Historical Development no better than a beast.”

  • The earliest worship centers

    • Abu Simpbel

    • Elephanta

    • Ellora

  • Horse shoe shaped window

  • Originally inspired by the Buddhist Stupa

  • The Great Stupa


Historical development cont d
Historical Development cont’d no better than a beast.”

  • The Stupa

    • Addition to the temple from Buddism

  • Shilpa Shastra

    • Point of reference

      for architects

  • Hindu temples

    • Large temples vs.

      mandirs:


Historical development cont d1
Historical Development cont’d no better than a beast.”

  • Shwe Dagon temple

  • Temples Today

    • Fundamentally the same as the 6th century

    • Richly decorated


Works cited
Works Cited no better than a beast.”

"Art and Architecture" http://hinduism.iskcon.com/index.htm. The Heart of Hinduism Project. 2004. 1 section. 3 Nov 2006. ISKCON Educational Services <http://hinduism.iskcon.com/lifestyle/805.htm>

"Architectural Mosaic" http://www.hinduonline.com/. The Hindu. 12 May 2002. 5 sections. 2002 1 Nov 2006 <http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/mag/2002/05/12/stories/2002051200450800.htm>

Batchelor, Anthony. “Indian Temple Architecture.” TempleNet. 13 Nov. 2006. <http://www.indiantemples.com/temparc.html>

“Ganesha: The Elephant God.” About. 13 November 2006. <http://hinduism.about.com/library/weekly/aa083000a.htm>.

Havell, Ernest Binfield. The Art heritage of India. Dutton, 1911.

Hindu Architecture. Indiasite.com. 10 November 2006. <http://www.indiasite.com/architecture/hindu.html>.


Works cited con t
Works Cited Con’t no better than a beast.”

"Hindu Architecture" 10 Aug 2004, 7 paragraphs. Project India. 11 Nov 2006 <http://www.scholars.nus.edu.sg/student_work/global_programme/indiaweb/PI2/hindu_architecture.html>.

Hindu Art. 15 August 2006. Hindu Wisdom. 13 November 2006. <http://www.hinduwisdom.info/Hindu_Art.htm#h%20i%20n%20d%20u%20%20%20%20a%20r%20t>.

Hindu Temple Architecture. Answers Corporation. 15 November 2006. <http://www.answers.com/topic/hindu-temple-architecture>.

Kumar, Nitin. “The Hindu Temple: Where Man Becomes God.” May 2006. Exotic India. 12 Nov. 2006. <http://www.exoticindiaart.com/read/hindu_temple.htm>.

Nangia, Ashish. “Poetry in Stone: Crystallization of the Hindu Temple.” 15 Nov. 2001. Boloji.com. 13 Nov. 2006. <http://www.boloji.com/architecture/00006.htm>.

Temples. Indian Heritage. 10 Nov. 2006. <http://www.saigan.com/heritage/tindex.html>.


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