Immediate sanction probation pilot project
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Immediate Sanction Probation Pilot Project. Virginia Criminal Sentencing Commission June 10, 2013. Overview of HOPE Program Evaluation. Evaluation of HOPE Program.

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Immediate Sanction Probation Pilot Project

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Immediate sanction probation pilot project

Immediate Sanction Probation Pilot Project

Virginia Criminal Sentencing Commission

June 10, 2013


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

Overview of HOPE Program

Evaluation


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

Evaluation of HOPE Program

  • Pepperdine University, with funding from the National Institute of Justice, conducted an evaluation of Project HOPE (published December, 2009)

  • Evaluation design employed a random assignment of 493 high-risk probationers:

    330 (two-thirds) were placed into Project HOPE163 (one-third) were placed into regular probation


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

HOPE Evaluation Outcomes

HOPE Program Outcomes

(One Year Follow-up)

CONTROL

47%

46%

HOPE

Even though the HOPE group was brought back to court for every violation (more opportunities to be revoked), HOPE participants still had lower revocation rate

23%

21%

15%

13%

9%

7%

Used Drugs

Arrested for New Crime

Probation Revoked

Skipped Appointments

Source: Hawken, A. & Kleiman, M. (2009). Managing Drug Involved Probationers with Swift and

Certain Sanctions: Evaluating Hawaii's HOPE. www.ncjrs.govpdffiles1/nij/grants/229023.pdf


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

HOPE Evaluation Outcomes

HOPE Program Outcomes

(One Year Follow-up)

A separate study found that, on average, HOPE participants and a control group served about the same amount of time in jail for violations (approx. 20 days).

However, the average prison sentence was significantly lower for HOPE participants.

CONTROL

HOPE

Source: Hawken, A. & Kleiman, M. (2009). Managing Drug Involved Probationers with Swift and

Certain Sanctions: Evaluating Hawaii's HOPE. www.ncjrs.govpdffiles1/nij/grants/229023.pdf


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

HOPE Evaluation Outcomes

HOPE Program Outcomes

Number of Positive Urinalyses for HOPE Participants in 12 months

Source: Hawken, A. & Kleiman, M. (2009). Managing Drug Involved Probationers with Swift and

Certain Sanctions: Evaluating Hawaii's HOPE. www.ncjrs.govpdffiles1/nij/grants/229023.pdf


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

HOPE Evaluation Outcomes -

Key Components of the Warning Hearing

These are also frequently reiterated at violation hearings.

As part of the warning, the judge:

  • Stresses the importance of the probationer taking charge of his own life and accepting accountability for his own actions

  • Clearly lays out the consequences for violation in advance, which creates a perception of fairness on the part of the probationer

  • Expresses goodwill toward the probationer and the desire that the probationer succeed


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

HOPE Evaluation Outcomes –

Other Key Components of the Warning and Violation Hearings

Other key factors described in Hawaii’s evaluation:

  • Presence of prosecution and defense is key to reinforcing perception of fairness and emphasizing the seriousness of the matter

    • Attorneys are also important in Virginia because of the statutory ability to object to an expedited hearing and the judge’s ability to remove an offender at any time.

  • The probation officer reinforces the message expressed by the court after the probationer is released from incarceration following a violation.


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

Swift and Certain Sanction Programs

Elsewhere in the U.S.


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

States with Similar Swift and Certain Sanction Programs

Interest and Participation in Results First

ME

WA

MT

ND

MN

OR

NY

WI

SD

ID

MI

WY

PA

VT

IA

NE

OH

IN

NH

NV

IL

WV

UT

MA

VA

CO

MO

CA

KS

KY

RI

NC

CT

TN

OK

SC

NJ

AR

AZ

NM

GA

DE

AL

MS

MD

LA

TX

FL

AK

AK

Evaluation or Preliminary Results Reported

HI

Data Collection Phase/Evaluation Pending

Program Created, Evaluation Status Unknown


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

Research on Swift and Certain Sanction Programs

  • Growing body of research on HOPE-style supervision:

    • Anchorage Probation Accountability with Certain Enforcement (PACE)

    • South Dakota 24/7 Sobriety Project

    • Washington Intensive Supervision Program (WISP)

    • Arizona Swift Accountable Fair Enforcement (SAFE)

    • 4 Federal Demonstration Field Experiment Sites

      • Clackamas County, Oregon

      • Essex County, Massachusetts

      • Saline County, Arkansas; and

      • Tarrant County, Texas


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

Virginia’s Pilot Project –

Status Update


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

Completed Tasks

  • Implementation manual, warning script, and forms

  • Template court orders in place

  • Payment process for court-appointed attorneys working with the program in Henrico

  • Point-of-contact for each office/agency identified and contact lists created for each pilot site

    • To facilitate swift communication process


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

Completed Tasks

  • Worked with DOC, Compensation Board, and Clerks to add new codes, etc., in automated systems

    • DOC’s VA-CORIS system

    • Local Inmate Data System used in the jails

    • Supreme Court’s Case Management System

  • Prepared and presented information on HOPE and Virginia's pilot program to all Probation Officers in Lynchburg and Henrico to encourage the identification and referral of candidates


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

Ongoing Tasks

  • Hold regular meetings in each pilot site to discuss any issues or questions that arise

    • Work together to develop solutions that are satisfactory to everyone


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

Overview of Henrico Pilot Program

Start date: November 1, 2012

Two judges oversee the hearings (Judge Yoffy and Judge Wallerstein)

DOC has designated a probation officer to supervise the offenders in the program

Six court-appointed attorneys provide defense counsel to offenders in the program

Sheriff and Chief of Police agreed to arrest program violators quickly (currently being handled by HPD’s Fugitive Investigations Team)

Judges conduct expedited hearings on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday at 1:00pm


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

Overview of Lynchburg Pilot Program

Start date: January 1, 2013

One judge is overseeing the hearings (Judge Yeatts; backup will be a substitute judge)

DOC designated a probation officer to supervise the offenders in the program

The Public Defender’s Office provides counsel to offenders in the program


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

Overview of Lynchburg Pilot Program

  • Sheriff and Chief of Police agreed to arrest program violators quickly

    • Initial delays within Police Department appear to have been resolved

  • Amherst and Campbell County Sheriffs have agreed to execute Lynchburg PB-15s quickly, thereby expanding the pool of potential program participants to those living outside the city

  • Originally held as needed, Lynchburg has now set expedited hearings for Monday, Wednesday, and Friday at 1:00pm


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

Update on Third Pilot Site

  • On March 5, Commission staff and the Deputy Secretary of Public Safety met with stakeholders in Chesapeake

  • Second meeting in Chesapeake was held in April

    • Stakeholders discussed the potential workload impact for the Probation Office and Clerk’s Office

    • Judges expressed concern about the low number of participants in the two existing pilot programs

      • Wanted eligibility criteria to be expanded to allow offenders with a prior conviction for an offense listed in § 17.1-805 to participate (e.g., prior burglaries)

      • Requested information on number of eligible offenders in Chesapeake


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

Update on Third Pilot Site

  • To encourage Chesapeake’s participation in the pilot, Commission staff pursued expanding the eligibility criteria to allow offenders with a prior conviction for an offense listed in § 17.1-805 to be considered for the program

    • This had previously been suggested by stakeholders in Henrico and Lynchburg

    • Secretary of Public Safety’s Office and the Commonwealth’s Attorneys in all three jurisdictions were amenable to the proposed change (implemented April 26)


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

Update on Third Pilot Site

Commission staff requested probation caseload data from DOC, which indicated that Chesapeake would have a larger pool of eligible offenders than either Henrico or Lynchburg


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

Update on Third Pilot Site

  • Chesapeake’s judges desired to change the pilot program to require offenders to waive their right to counsel in order to participate

  • Modifying the pilot program in this way raised concern

    • § 19.2-303.5 allows parties to object to the expedited hearing, in which case the matter proceeds to a full show cause hearing

    • HOPE evaluation found that defense counsel was an important part of the program’s effectiveness

    • Evaluation would likely become more challenging if one pilot site were operating differently than the others in regards to a key aspect of the program


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

Update on Third Pilot Site

  • Due to those circumstances, a pilot program did not proceed in Chesapeake

  • Discussions were held with the Secretary of Public Safety’s Office and DOC administration regarding options for another site

  • Arlington was identified as a potential site

    • Judge Newman has agreed to convene the stakeholders on June 19


Immediate sanction probation pilot project

Program-Related Issues Identified at the March Meeting

  • Number of eligible offenders appears to be less than expected

    • Offenders being supervised in the pilot sites who are under the jurisdiction of another court are not eligible

    • Offenders with current or prior violent felonies were not eligible

  • Probationers were not being referred to the Immediate Sanction Probation Officer to be considered for the program at the rate that was anticipated


  • Immediate sanction probation pilot project

    Program-Related Issues Identified at the March Meeting

    Henrico

    Program Participants

    (as of March 14)

    5

    Program Violations

    (as of March 14)

    1

    Lynchburg

    Program Participants

    (as of March 14)

    6

    Program Violations

    (as of March 14)

    5


    Immediate sanction probation pilot project

    Follow-up on Program-Related Issues

    • Eligibility criteria has been expanded to allow offenders with a prior conviction for an offense listed in § 17.1-805 to be considered for the program

    • On April 26, 2013, Commission staff accompanied DOC’s Deputy Director and a Regional Operations Chief to Henrico and Lynchburg to meet with all Probation Officers in each district

      • Presented information about the HOPE model and Virginia’s pilot program and answered questions

      • Second meeting was held for officers who could not attend the April 26 meeting


    Immediate sanction probation pilot project

    Follow-up on Program-Related Issues

    • Commission staff participate in weekly conference calls with each Probation District to discuss potential candidates for the program

      • Calls also provide opportunity to address questions from Probation staff and receive feedback on the program from Probation Officers


    Immediate sanction probation pilot project

    Program-Related Issues Identified at the March Meeting

    • Some PB-15s had not been executed as quickly as desired

      • This resulted in delays in getting offenders in front of the judge to be considered for placement in the program

      • More importantly, participants who violate must be arrested as quickly as possible so that sanctions can be imposed swiftly and the impact of the sanction on the offender can be maximized


    Immediate sanction probation pilot project

    Follow-up on Program-Related Issues

    • Issue was discussed at stakeholder meetings in March

    • Delays in executing PB-15s appear to have been resolved


    Immediate sanction probation pilot project

    Recent Activity in Henrico & Lynchburg


    Immediate sanction probation pilot project

    Recent Activity in Henrico & Lynchburg

    Measures of Swiftness

    Note: Excludes revocations that occurred after a participant’s removal from the program.


    Immediate sanction probation pilot project

    Recent Activity in Henrico & Lynchburg

    Measures of Certainty and Sanctions Imposed

    * Represents 1 case

    Note: Sentence length is in addition to time served awaiting hearing.

    Excludes revocations that occurred after a participant’s removal from the program.


    Immediate sanction probation pilot project

    Recent Activity in Henrico & Lynchburg

    Number of Violations for Participants

    *

    N=33

    * One participant was removed after 3 violations.


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