Literary elements
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Literary elements. Terms and Definitions Examples. Table of Contents. Plot ………………………………………………... Slide 3 Plot Diagram …………………………….... Slide 4 Setting ………………………………….............. Slides 5-6 Characterization ……………………………. Slides 7-9 Theme …………………………………………... Slides 10-11

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Literary elements

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Literary elements

Literary elements

Terms and Definitions

Examples


Table of contents

Table of Contents

Plot ………………………………………………... Slide 3

Plot Diagram …………………………….... Slide 4

Setting ………………………………….............. Slides 5-6

Characterization ……………………………. Slides 7-9

Theme …………………………………………... Slides 10-11

Symbolism …………………………………..... Slides 12-13

Conflict …………………………………………. Slides 14-15


Literary elements

PLOT

  • Plot is a series of events within a story. While the plots of stories differ from one book to another, there are several sections within a plot that are generally present in all stories:

    • Exposition

    • Rising Action

    • Climax

    • Falling Action

    • Resolution

  • Collectively, these sections of plot make up the Plot Diagram.


Plot diagram

PLOT DIAGRAM

CLIMAX – The turning point of the story where the conflict between the protagonist and antagonist is about to be resolved

RISING ACTION – The significant events in the story which develop the conflict and lead up to the story’s climax.

FALLING ACTION – The conflict between the protagonist and antagonist nears resolution as the protagonist either wins or loses in the battle against the antagonist.

EXPOSITION – The background information (setting, protagonist and other main characters, conflict) introduced in the beginning of the story.

RESOLUTION – With the conflict resolved and all loose ends tied up, the story can have its happy, or tragic, ending.


Setting

SETTING

  • Setting is the time and place in which the events of a story occur.

    • Setting can either be detailed and descriptive

      OR

      Setting can be barely mentioned

    • Setting can have an impact on the story’s plot

      OR

      Setting can be unimportant


Setting1

SETTING

In the movie Castaway, with Tom Hanks, the setting (deserted island) greatly impacts the movie’s plot because it actually acts as the antagonist to Hanks’ protagonist (preventing him from going home).


Characterization

CHARACTERIZATION

  • Characterization is the methods used by an author to acquaint the reader with a character in the story.

  • In order to accurately characterize a character, the reader must provide TWO BEHAVIORAL characteristics (adjectives which describe a character’s personality/behavior) and support those characteristics with specific evidence from the text.

  • Readers should use a character’s thoughts, feelings, actions and comments, as well as other characters’ interactions with him or her, in order to characterize.


Characterization1

CHARACTERIZATION

Example:

In Castaway, Chuck Noland seems passionate about his love for Kelly Frears. Even after being stranded on the deserted island for 1,500 days, he demonstrates his unflagging (tireless) love for Kelly by writing a message of love on a rock before attempting to escape by raft.


Characterization2

CHARACTERIZATION


Theme

THEME

  • Theme is the underlying meaning of a story. In many stories, themes are life lessons or morals, often realized in some way by the protagonist, and by extension, the reader.

  • To identify a story’s theme, readers may want to ask themselves, “What lesson does the protagonist learn by the end of the story?”


Theme1

THEME

  • In Castaway, Chuck Noland (Tom Hanks) battles with himself and the deserted island for survival. His love for Kelly Frears and his hope of reuniting with her is what keeps him alive. Chuck even says that Kelly “kept me alive”. Therefore, one possible theme could be that love is a powerful emotion and, to quote John Lennon, “All you need is love.”


Symbolism

SYMBOLISM

  • Symbolism is the analysis of a concrete object to determine its abstract meaning within a story.

    • A concrete object is something that is tangible (able to be felt or touched) and/or has definite a shape or appearance. (Example: American Flag)

    • An abstract concept is not tangible and therefore cannot be easily pictured, drawn, or pointed at. It is a feeling or idea of some kind. (Example: Freedom)


Symbolism1

SYMBOLISM

  • In Castaway, Chuck Noland saves a FedEx package with a picture of “wings” on it and then eventually draws these “wings” on his sail as he attempts to escape the island and go home. These “wings” are a symbol of his home, Memphis, Tennessee. Therefore, these “wings” represent his home and his desire to return.


Conflict

CONFLICT

  • Conflict is a struggle between opposing forces within a story, which is usually resolved by the end.

  • There are 5 types of conflict:

    • Person vs. Self ----------- Internal Conflict

    • Person vs. Person

    • Person vs. Society

    • Person vs. Nature

    • Person vs. Fate

      * Every story has multiple conflicts, but there is also one Central Conflict pitting the protagonist against the antagonist.

External Conflict


Central conflict

CENTRAL CONFLICT

  • In Castaway, the Central Conflict is Person vs. Nature, as Chuck Noland (protagonist) is stranded on a deserted island (antagonist). He spends nearly the entire movie (or story plot) battling the island for survival, and eventual escape.


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