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chapter 3 the first century of settlement in the colonial north

Chapter 3: The First Century of Settlement in the Colonial North

Preview: “Europe’s religious rivalries shaped seventeenth-century colonies along America’s northern rim: the Protestant Reformation stamped English Puritan settlements from Maine to Long Island, and the Catholic Counter-Reformation encouraged the less numerous settlers of French Canada. New England’s stable societies, with their strong family bonds and growing tradition of self-government, contrasted with the more prosperous and ethnically diverse colonies of the mid-Atlantic.”

The Highlights:

The Founding of New England

New England Communities

The Mid-Atlantic Colonies

Adjustment to Empire

breaking away
Breaking Away
  • Rapid social change in seventeenth-century England
  • English population _______
  • Different motives for migration
    • religious versus economic
    • personal: to escape bad marriages, jail terms, or lifelong poverty
four colonial subcultures
Four Colonial Subcultures
  • The Chesapeake
  • _______ __________
  • Middle Colonies
  • The Carolinas
the founding of new england
The Founding of New England
  • The Puritan Movement
    • Puritans consisted of Presbyterian and Congregationalist believers
    • Puritans, like all _______ emphasized _____________
    • Puritan calls for reform lead to their separatist band sailing for America
    • 1620: “Pilgrims” establish ___________ Colony
reforming england in america
Reforming England in America
  • Pilgrims
    • ____________ who refused to worship in the Church of England, fled
    • Escape persecution in _______
  • 1620--Plymouth founded
  • Mayflower _________
  • Plymouth a society of small farming villages bound together by mutual consent
  • 1691--absorbed into Massachusetts Bay
the great migration
“The Great Migration”
  • Puritans
    • Wish to remain within the ______ of __________, work to eliminate all remaining vestiges of the Roman _________ past
  • 1629--Puritans despair as King Charles I begins Personal Rule
  • 1630--______ ________ leads Puritan group to Massachusetts, brings Company Charter
a city on a hill
“A City on a Hill”
  • 1630-1640--16,000 immigrated
  • Settlers usually came as family units
  • Area generally healthy
  • Puritans sacrifice ___________ for the good of the community
  • Congregational Church Order
    • Church members had to prove their experience with “__________”
    • In spite of the level of religiosity in New England, the separation of church and state was advanced compared to Europe
a city on a hill 2
“A City on a Hill” (2)
  • Puritans establish ______________
    • a state-supported ecclesiastical system in which each congregation is independently governed by local church members
  • Puritan civil government permits ___________ by all adult male church members
  • Elected officials not to concern themselves with voters’ wishes
a city on a hill 3
“A City on a Hill” (3)
  • Local, town governments ____________
  • Most participated in public life at town level
  • Townships commercial properties, shares of which could be bought and sold
  • Village life intensely ________
  • Laws and Liberties passed in 1648 to protect rights, ensure civil order
new england communities
New England Communities
  • Stability and Order in Early New England
    • Life expectancy in Puritan New England ______ as long as in Virginia
    • By 1700, population of New England was 100,000—most from natural increase
    • More stable families, which led to a more stable society with defined patterns of settlement
    • Hierarchy in families reflected in village leadership
women s lives in puritan new england
Women’s Lives in Puritan New England

Women not legally equal with men

Marriages based on mutual love

Most Women contributed to society as

wives and mothers

church members

small-scale farmers

Women accommodated themselves to roles they believed God ordained

slide14
Goodwives and Witches
  • Defined gender roles in Puritan society—woman restricted to domestic work
  • Significant legal barriers for women
  • Turned over all property to husbands
  • Could not sue or be sued
  • Divorce was nearly impossible
  • Could not vote
  • Only in churches did Puritan woman command semi-equal standing with men
contagion of witchcraft
Contagion of Witchcraft

Charges of witchcraft common

accused witches thought to have made a compact with the devil

_______ panic of 1691 much larger in scope than previous accusations

20 victims dead before trials halted in late summer of 1692

Causes include factionalism, economics

whites and indians in early new england
Whites and Indians in Early New England
  • Puritans made few efforts to covert Indians
  • Compelling similarities between Puritan and __________ societies
  • Bitter tensions culminated in Pequot’s War (1636-37) and King Philip’s War (1675-76)
  • Disastrous impact of Old World diseases
king philip s war
King Philip’s War

1675--_________ leads Wampanoag-Narragansett alliance against colonists

Colonists struggle to unite, defeat Indians

Deaths total 1,000+ Indians and colonists

limits of dissent roger williams
Limits of Dissent: Roger Williams
  • An extreme Separatist
  • Questioned the validity of the colony’s ________
  • Champions “liberty of conscience”
  • Williams expelled to Rhode Island, 1636
limits of dissent anne hutchinson
Limits of Dissent:Anne Hutchinson
  • Believed herself directly inspired by the Holy Spirit
  • Believed “converted” persons could live without the Moral Law
  • Charged that Congregational ministers preached a “covenant of works”
  • Banished to Rhode Island by General Court
mobility and division
Mobility and Division
  • New Hampshire--insignificant until eighteenth century
  • Rhode Island--received dissenters from Massachusetts
  • Connecticut--founded by Thomas Hooker
  • New Haven--absorbed into Connecticut
  • Tensions with Quakers
sources of stability new england colonies of the seventeenth century
Sources of Stability: New England Colonies of the Seventeenth Century

New Englanders replicated traditional English social order

Contrasted with experience in other English colonies

Explanation lies in development of Puritan families

commonwealth of families
Commonwealth of Families

Most New Englanders married neighbors of whom parents approved

New England towns collections of interrelated households

Church membership associated with certain families

________ provided by the family

social hierarchy in new england
Social Hierarchy in New England

Absence of very rich necessitates creation of new social order

New England social order becomes

local gentry of prominent, pious families

large population of independent yeomen landowners loyal to local community

small population of landless laborers, servants, poor

immigrant families and new social order
Immigrant Families and New Social Order

Puritans believed God ordained the ________

Reproduce patriarchal English family structure in New England

Greater longevity in New England results in “invention” of ________

Multigenerational families strengthen social stability

diversity in the middle colonies
Diversity in the Middle Colonies
  • New York
  • New Jersey
  • Pennsylvania
  • Delaware
anglo dutch rivalry on the hudson
Anglo-Dutch Rivalry on the Hudson
  • Location: ________ River
  • New Netherlands originally property of Dutch West Indies Company
  • Population included Finns, Swedes, _________, Africans, as well as Dutch
  • 1664--English fleet captured colony
anglo dutch rivalry on the hudson 2
Anglo-Dutch Rivalry on the Hudson (2)
  • New York made personal property of ________, Duke of York
  • Property included New Jersey, Delaware, Maine, and various islands
  • Inhabitants had no ______ ________beyond the local level
  • James derived little profit from the colony.
confusion in new jersey
Confusion in New Jersey
  • Colony sold by Duke of York to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret
  • Settlers refuse to pay ________
    • grounds: New York governor had promised representative assembly
  • Berkeley splits colony by selling out to ________ group
confusion in new jersey 2
Confusion in New Jersey (2)
  • West Jersey becomes Quakers’ colony
  • Democratic system of government introduced
  • Diverse, contentious
  • Neither Jersey prospers, _________ by the crown in 1702
quakers in america
Quakers in America
  • Pennsylvania founding inseparable from Quakers
  • “Quaker” a derogatory term for those who “tremble at the word of the Lord”
  • Members call sect “Society of ___________”
quaker belief and practice
Quaker Belief and Practice
  • Founder: George Fox (1624-1691)
  • Believed in “______ ______”
    • Rejected idea of original sin, _____________
    • Each may communicate directly with God
    • Each has responsibility to cultivate Inner Light
  • Persecuted as dangerous anarchists
penn s holy experiment
Penn\'s "Holy Experiment"
  • Aristocrat William Penn converts to the Society of Friends
  • Obtains a charter for Pennsylvania
  • "Holy Experiment"--a society run on Quaker principles
  • Promotes religious _________
  • Protects rights of property-less
settling pennsylvania
Settling Pennsylvania
  • Immigrants recruited from England, Wales, Ireland, and Germany
  • Quaker population racked by contention
  • Non-Quaker population does not share Penn’s ideals
  • 1701--Penn grants self-rule to Pennsylvania colonists, independence to Delaware
slide36
Patterns of Settlement
    • Population in Pennsylvania consisted of indentured servants, small farmers, and artisans
    • Majority were Quakers, but also people of other faiths settled
    • Unique peace between settlers and Indians, the Lenni Lenapes
  • Quakers and Politics
    • Constant tension among Penn, his council, the legislative assembly, and farmers
rise of a commercial empire
Rise of a Commercial Empire
  • English leaders _________colonies until 1650s (salutary neglect)
  • Restored monarchy of Charles II recognized value of colonial trade
  • _________ passed to regulate, protect, glean revenue from commerce
response to economic competition
Response to Economic Competition
  • “Mercantilism” a misleading term for English commercial regulation
  • Regulations emerge as ad hoc responses to particular problems
  • Varieties of motivation
    • crown wants money
    • English merchants want to exclude Dutch
    • Parliament wants stronger Navy—encourage domestic shipbuilding industry
    • everyone wants better _________ of trade
glorious revolution the dominion of new england
Glorious Revolution: The Dominion of New England
  • 1684--King James II establishes “___________of New England”
    • colonial charters __________
    • colonies from Maine to New Jersey united
    • Edmund Andros appointed governor
    • Governor Edmund Andros used ruthless policies and leadership to enforce the authority of the English government
    • Andros engendered hatred from nearly everyone
the glorious revolution in the bay colony outcomes
The Glorious Revolution in the Bay Colony: Outcomes
    • 1688: James II deposed in favor of _____________ daughter, Mary, and her Dutch husband, William of Orange
    • New Englanders take cue from the revolution and depose Edmund Andros
    • Dominion overthrown; colonies given new charters, 1689-91
  • Massachusetts a new charter
    • incorporates _________
    • transfers franchise from "saints" to those with property
the glorious revolution in new york
The Glorious Revolution in New York
  • 1689--News of James II’s overthrow prompts crisis of authority in New York
  • Jacob Leisler seizes control
  • Maintains position through 1690
  • March 1691--Governor Henry Sloughter arrests, executes Leisler
local aspirations within an atlantic empire
Local Aspirations Within an Atlantic Empire
  • By 1700 England’s attitude toward the colonies had changed dramatically
  • Sectional differences within the colonies were profound
  • They were all part of Great Britain but had little to do with each other
royal authority in america to 1700
Royal Authority in America to 1700
  • 1696: ________initiated closer regulation of trade in the colonies
  • By 1700, members of colonial assemblies understood the limits of royal power
  • Growing threat to English colonies by ascendant ________
regulating colonial trade the navigation act of 1660
Regulating Colonial Trade: The Navigation Act of 1660

Ships engage in English colonial trade

must be made in England (or America)

must carry a crew at least _____ English

Enumerated goods only to English ports

1660 list included tobacco, sugar, cotton, indigo, dyes, ginger

1704-05 molasses, rice, naval stores also

regulating colonial trade the navigation act of 1663
Regulating Colonial Trade: The Navigation Act of 1663

Goods shipped to English colonies must pass through ________

Increased _______ paid by colonial consumers

regulating colonial trade implementing the acts
Regulating Colonial Trade:Implementing the Acts

Navigation Acts spark __________ trade wars

New England merchants skirt laws

English revisions tighten loopholes

1696--Board of ______ created

Navigation Acts eventually benefit colonial merchants

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