Rome republic to empire
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Rome: Republic to Empire. Roman Republic, 509-27 bce Classical Roman Empire, 27 bce-306 ce Divided, Christianized Roman Empire, 306-476 ce Western Christendom & Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine), 476 – 1453

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Rome: Republic to Empire

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Rome: Republic to Empire

  • Roman Republic, 509-27 bce

  • Classical Roman Empire, 27 bce-306 ce

  • Divided, Christianized Roman Empire, 306-476 ce

  • Western Christendom & Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine), 476 – 1453

    IDs: Augustus Caesar (r. 27 bce-30 ce), PaxRomana, Constantine (r. 306-337), Byzantine Empire


Grand Empires: Rome & Han China

Larger

Peace & Stability

Long-Lasting

Models


Argument

Rome relied on military power and slavery. Faced with frequent challenges, Rome survived because it transformed several times – first, from a republic into an empire, then into a divided, Christianized empire, and finally into medieval “Christendom” in the west and the Byzantine Empire in the east.


I. Roman Republic, 509-27 bceA. Predecessor: Hellenistic Influence


B. Rome starts small & grows by conquest Expansion around Mediterranean


1. Military strength

Farmer-militiamen

legion


2. Roman Values

  • Respect for authority & hierarchy (especially fathers)

  • Dutyto

    • family

    • state (Rome)

    • the gods


C. Crisis in Republic (100-27 BCE)

Wealthy elite buys up land

Plantations & Slave labor

Unemployed farmers  city

Army commanders

Continuous civil war


D. Dictatorship & Civil War

Dictatorship: Julius Caesar, d. 44 BCE

Civil War (44-27 BCE)

Octavian  Augustus Caesar (takes over in 27 BCE)


II. Classical Roman Empire, 27 bce-306 ce

  • Imperator (emperor)

    Augustus Caesar (reigns 27 bce-30 ce)


B. Pax Romana (Roman Peace)

1. Strong military

  • Legions

  • Provinces

  • Military governors


2.Ideology

Emperor as father of people

Romans’ duty to rule for good of world


3. Continued Expansion

Parthian (Persian) Empire

Rhine & Danube


4. Administration

Citizenship

Local urban elites

patrons


C. Empire as Urban Network

  • Rome

    Forum

    Baths

    Theatres


Colosseum


Baths


Forum


Forum of Trajan


Pantheon


Pantheon


2. Provincial Cities

Trier (Rhine frontier)


3. Dependent on Trade


4. Roman Attractions

Law

Technology

Hellenistic culture

aqueduct


5. Bread & circuses


6. Slave empire

Latifundias

villa


D. Problems, 200-300 CE

  • Administrative weakness

  • Depopulation


3. End of Expansion; Beginning of Defense


III. Divided, Christianized Roman Empire, 306-476 ce

  • Constantine (r. 306-337 CE)


A. Constantine divides empire into east & west


B. Constantine Converts to Christianity

Uses Christianity to unify & strengthen empire


C. Christianity becomes Official Roman Religion


D. Crisis 400-476 CE

  • Depopulation & Economic breakdown

  • Invasion/ migration of Germanic or Barbarian “Tribes”

    Huns


The Barbarians did not make Rome fall.

Attracted to Roman wealth and lifestyle

Barbarians in Roman army

Not a “conquest”


Stilicho the “Barbarian” & his family


3. Network of Trade & Cities breaks down


IV. Western Christendom & Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine), 476 – 1453

A. Western Empire ends

476 CE: Last western Roman emperor deposed

Germanic kingdoms (Medieval Christendom)


From empire & trade  local power


B. Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) continues until 1453


Emperor Justinian


C. Roman unity  Christian Unity “Christendom”

Christian church takes over structure of Roman Empire


Argument

Rome relied on military power and slavery. Faced with frequent challenges, Rome survived because it transformed several times – first, from a republic into an empire, then into a divided, Christianized empire, and finally into medieval “Christendom” in the west and the Byzantine Empire in the east.


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