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Rome: Republic to Empire. Roman Republic, 509-27 bce Classical Roman Empire, 27 bce-306 ce Divided, Christianized Roman Empire, 306-476 ce Western Christendom & Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine), 476 – 1453

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Rome republic to empire
Rome: Republic to Empire

  • Roman Republic, 509-27 bce

  • Classical Roman Empire, 27 bce-306 ce

  • Divided, Christianized Roman Empire, 306-476 ce

  • Western Christendom & Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine), 476 – 1453

    IDs: Augustus Caesar (r. 27 bce-30 ce), PaxRomana, Constantine (r. 306-337), Byzantine Empire


Grand Empires: Rome & Han China

Larger

Peace & Stability

Long-Lasting

Models


Argument
Argument

Rome relied on military power and slavery. Faced with frequent challenges, Rome survived because it transformed several times – first, from a republic into an empire, then into a divided, Christianized empire, and finally into medieval “Christendom” in the west and the Byzantine Empire in the east.


I roman republic 509 27 bce a predecessor hellenistic influence
I. Roman Republic, 509-27 bceA. Predecessor: Hellenistic Influence


B rome starts small grows by conquest expansion around mediterranean
B. Rome starts small & grows by conquest Expansion around Mediterranean


1 military strength
1. Military strength

Farmer-militiamen

legion


2 roman values
2. Roman Values

  • Respect for authority & hierarchy (especially fathers)

  • Dutyto

    • family

    • state (Rome)

    • the gods


C crisis in republic 100 27 bce
C. Crisis in Republic (100-27 BCE)

Wealthy elite buys up land

Plantations & Slave labor

Unemployed farmers  city

Army commanders

Continuous civil war


D dictatorship civil war
D. Dictatorship & Civil War

Dictatorship: Julius Caesar, d. 44 BCE

Civil War (44-27 BCE)

Octavian  Augustus Caesar (takes over in 27 BCE)


Ii classical roman empire 27 bce 306 ce
II. Classical Roman Empire, 27 bce-306 ce

  • Imperator (emperor)

    Augustus Caesar (reigns 27 bce-30 ce)


B pax romana roman peace
B. Pax Romana (Roman Peace)

1. Strong military

  • Legions

  • Provinces

  • Military governors


2 ideology
2.Ideology

Emperor as father of people

Romans’ duty to rule for good of world


3 continued expansion
3. Continued Expansion

Parthian (Persian) Empire

Rhine & Danube


4 administration
4. Administration

Citizenship

Local urban elites

patrons


C empire as urban network
C. Empire as Urban Network

  • Rome

    Forum

    Baths

    Theatres








2 provincial cities
2. Provincial Cities

Trier (Rhine frontier)



4 roman attractions
4. Roman Attractions

Law

Technology

Hellenistic culture

aqueduct



6 slave empire
6. Slave empire

Latifundias

villa


D problems 200 300 ce
D. Problems, 200-300 CE

  • Administrative weakness

  • Depopulation



Iii divided christianized roman empire 306 476 ce
III. Divided, Christianized Roman Empire, 306-476 ce

  • Constantine (r. 306-337 CE)



B constantine converts to christianity
B. Constantine Converts to Christianity

Uses Christianity to unify & strengthen empire



D crisis 400 476 ce
D. Crisis 400-476 CE

  • Depopulation & Economic breakdown

  • Invasion/ migration of Germanic or Barbarian “Tribes”

    Huns


The barbarians did not make rome fall
The Barbarians did not make Rome fall.

Attracted to Roman wealth and lifestyle

Barbarians in Roman army

Not a “conquest”




Iv western christendom eastern roman empire byzantine 476 1453
IV. Western Christendom & Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine), 476 – 1453

A. Western Empire ends

476 CE: Last western Roman emperor deposed

Germanic kingdoms (Medieval Christendom)


From empire trade local power
From empire & trade  local power


B eastern roman empire byzantine empire continues until 1453
B. Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) continues until 1453



C roman unity christian unity christendom
C. Roman unity  Christian Unity “Christendom”

Christian church takes over structure of Roman Empire


Argument1
Argument

Rome relied on military power and slavery. Faced with frequent challenges, Rome survived because it transformed several times – first, from a republic into an empire, then into a divided, Christianized empire, and finally into medieval “Christendom” in the west and the Byzantine Empire in the east.


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