paper chromatography and separating immiscible liquids
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Paper Chromatography and Separating immiscible liquids. E. Haniff. Objectives. Separate a mixture of different solutions using a given solvent (by difference of solubilities ) Separate a mixture of immiscible liquids. What are immiscible liquids?.

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Presentation Transcript
objectives
Objectives
  • Separate a mixture of different solutions using a given solvent (by difference of solubilities)
  • Separate a mixture of immiscible liquids
what are immiscible liquids
What are immiscible liquids?
  • Immiscible liquids are two liquids which cannot be dissolved in one another
  • They form two distinct layers
title separation of two immiscible liquids
Title: Separation of two immiscible liquids
  • Aim: To separate a mixture of oil and water
  • Apparatus and materials: Separating funnel with tap, water, oil and 3 containers
method
Method
  • The apparatus was set up as shown in the diagram
  • The denser liquid at the bottom of the separating funnel was withdrawn through the tap and collected in a container
  • The container was then replaced with another and a small quantity of liquid was withdrawn (a mixture of the two right after the denser liquid was withdrawn
method continued
Method continued…
  • The container was then replaced again and the less dense liquid was allowed to run out and was collected.
  • Observations were noted
observations
Observations
  • Two separate layers were formed in the separating funnel.
  • The oil was seen at the top layer and the water at the bottom layer
discussion
Discussion
  • The separation of two immiscible liquids is based on the principle that the two liquids do not mix and form two distinct layers
  • The less dense liquid was the oil, which formed the top layer
  • The denser liquid was the water which formed the bottom layer and was withdrawn first, allowing the separation of the two liquids
conclusion
Conclusion
  • The mixture of oil and water was separated using a separating funnel
  • Oil and water are immiscible liquids because they do not dissolve one another
application
Application….
  • The principle of immiscibility of liquids in some solvents is used in solvent extraction
  • Solvent extraction is used to separate a component from a mixture by using two solvents.
  • Two conditions have to be met:
  • The component must be more soluble in one solvent than in the other
  • The two solvents must be immiscible
for example pg 75
For example…pg 75
  • To compare the solubility of iodine in two solvents
  • Iodine is dissolved in water
  • The water is mixed with 1,1,1-trichloroethane
  • The iodine goes into this solvent and the water can be drained off in a separating funnel
uses of solvent extraction
Uses of solvent extraction
  • Good for removing organic molecules from water
  • For example caffeine from tea or coffee.
  • Caffeine is an organic compound which is more soluble in an organic solvent which is immiscible with water.(Dichloromethane)
title paper chromatography
Title: Paper Chromatography
  • Aim: To separate the components of screened methyl orange
  • Apparatus and materials: filter paper, beaker, capillary tube, test tube, screened methyl orange
method1
Method:
  • To a strip of filter paper, a capillary tube was used to place a small drop of methyl orange, close to the base of the paper
  • A small volume of water was placed in a test tube or beaker
  • The strip of filter paper was suspended so that it barely touched the solvent
method2
Method:
  • It was left to stand for a while
  • Observations were recorded
observations1
Observations
  • The liquid moved up the filter paper
  • Distinct colours could be seen
  • The colour that moved the furthest up the filter paper was…….
discussion1
Discussion
  • Chromatography is a technique that uses a stationary phase and a mobile phase
  • The stationary phase is the filter paper in paper chromatography
  • The mobile phase is the solvent that moves up the paper
  • Chromatography can be used to separate minute quantities of substances.
discussion2
Discussion
  • Separation of the different components occurs because each substance is soluble to different extents in the chosen solvent (the mobile phase)
  • The more soluble component travels the furthest up the filter paper and the least soluble remains closer to the base
  • Two colours were seen in screened methyl orange: two dyes a blue and a yellow
conclusion1
Conclusion
  • Screened methyl orange contains two components: a blue dye and a yellow dye
  • The more soluble component appeared blue in colour
  • The blue dye was more soluble in water
applications of chromatography
Applications of chromatography
  • Testing for trace contaminants in the environment
  • Monitoring water quality and air quality
  • Analyzing pure samples for trace contaminants (pharmaceutical industry)
  • Quality control in food industry
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