Major tectonic systems operating during the past 200 My
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I. Fragmentation of the Gondwana super-continent Creation of new Oceans Atlantic Indian PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Major tectonic systems operating during the past 200 My. I. Fragmentation of the Gondwana super-continent Creation of new Oceans Atlantic Indian circum-Antarctic formation of passive margins Closing of Tethys Ocean: complex Mediterranean – Middle East interactions

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I. Fragmentation of the Gondwana super-continent Creation of new Oceans Atlantic Indian

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I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Major tectonic systems operating during the past 200 My

I. Fragmentation of the Gondwana super-continent

  • Creation of new Oceans

    • Atlantic

    • Indian

    • circum-Antarctic

    • formation of passive margins

  • Closing of Tethys Ocean:

    • complex Mediterranean – Middle East interactions

    • major continental collisions in central Asia

    • Australian-SE Asian collisions


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

# 18 42.7 Ma

Middle Eocene

Indian Pacific connection

Drake Passage


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

#13 35.5 Ma

Early Oligocene

Indian Pacific connection

Drake Passage


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

#6, 20.5 Ma

Early Miocene

Indian Pacific connection

Drake Passage


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Indian Pacific connection

Drake Passage


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Formation of Circum-Antarctic Current >> isolation of Antarctica >> formation of ice sheet

circum-Antarctic Current


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Formation of North Atlantic Deep water

(thermo-haline convection system)


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Formation of continental passive margins

continental shelf


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

continental passive margins

Sedimentation on subsiding continental shelf

thinned continental crust

oceanic crust


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Major tectonic systems operating during the past 200 My

I. Fragmentation of the Gondwana super-continent

  • Creation of new Oceans

    • Atlantic

    • Indian

    • circum-Antarctic

    • formation of passive margins

  • Closing of Tethys Ocean:

    • complex Mediterranean – Middle East interactions

    • major continental collisions in central Asia

    • Australian-SE Asian collisions


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Earthquake

depth

0-33 km

33-70

70-300

300-700

Complex intra-continental Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”

Indonesian (Sunda-Banda) island arc


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Topography for previous slide: note complex topography of Mediterranean-central Asian “plate boundary”.


India moving northwards

India moving northwards


Himalayan evolution

Himalayan evolution


Indention of india into asia

Indention of India into Asia

The named dashed and dotted lines represent boundaries between terranes successively accreted to Asia. The accretion increases in age to the north:

Indus Tsangbo, 40 Ma

Banggong,160 Ma

Jinsha, 200 Ma

Kunlun, 255 Ma

Tienshan, late Paleozoic

The indentation has moved these sutures northwards

The dotted areas show the regions of shearing that accomodated the northward indentation of India


Tibetan plateau models

Tibetan plateau models


Region of thetibetan plateau

Region of theTibetan Plateau

Ignore white rectangle. The blue line shows the approximate location of the section shown in the third slide after this one.


A recently published geological cross section

A recently published geological cross section

See the section line (blue line) on the map shown in the third preceding slide. From Yin, A. and T.M. Harrison, 2000, Geologic Evolution of the Himalayan-Tibetan Orogen, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., v.28, 211-280.


Central asian active tectonics

Central Asian active tectonics


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Major tectonic systems operating during the past 200 My

II. Pacific System

  • East Pacific Rise (EPR) moving towards the Americas and away from Asia

  • Hot spot tracks

  • Rimmed by subduction zones

    • Western Pacific

      • Subducting old oceanic lithosphere

      • Formation of back-arc basins and island arcs

    • Eastern Pacific

      • Subducting young oceanic lithosphere

      • Andean type mountain building

      • Collision and accretion of exotic terranes

      • Collision of EPR with North America


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

East Pacific Rise


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Major tectonic systems operating during the past 200 My

II. Pacific System

  • East Pacific Rise (EPR) moving towards the Americas and away from Asia

  • Hot spot tracks

  • Rimmed by subduction zones

    • Western Pacific

      • Subducting old oceanic lithosphere

      • Formation of back-arc basins and island arcs

    • Eastern Pacific

      • Subducting young oceanic lithosphere

      • Andean type mountain building

      • Collision and accretion of exotic terranes

      • Collision of EPR with North America


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Earthquake

depth

0-33 km

33-70

70-300

300-700

Northwestern Pacific Subduction zones: seismicity

Ryukyu island arc

Kurile-Kamchatka island arc

Aleutian Island arc

N. Honshu subduction zone

Izu-Bonin-Marianas island arc


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Northwestern Pacific Subduction zones: bathymetry


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Earthquake

depth

0-33 km

33-70

70-300

300-700

New Britain Island arc

Southwestern Pacific Subduction zones: seismicity

Vanuatu island arc

Tonga island arc

Kermadec island arc

New Zealand


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Southwestern Pacific Subduction zones: bathymetry


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Major tectonic systems operating during the past 200 My

II. Pacific System

  • East Pacific Rise (EPR) moving towards the Americas and away from Asia

  • Hot spot tracks

  • Rimmed by subduction zones

    • Western Pacific

      • Subducting old oceanic lithosphere

      • Formation of back-arc basins and island arcs

    • Eastern Pacific

      • Subducting young oceanic lithosphere

      • Andean type mountain building

      • Collision and accretion of exotic terranes

      • Collision of EPR with North America


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Major tectonic systems operating during the past 200 My

II. Pacific System

  • East Pacific Rise (EPR) moving towards the Americas and away from Asia

  • Rimmed by subduction zones

    • Western Pacific

      • Subducting old oceanic lithosphere

      • Formation of back-arc basins and island arcs

    • Eastern Pacific

      • Subducting young oceanic lithosphere

      • Andean type mountain building

      • Collision and accretion of exotic terranes

      • Collision of EPR with North America

  • Hot spot tracks


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Eastern Pacific


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

South American Plate

Nazca Plate

8 cm/yr


Central andes cross section

Central Andes cross section

South America Plate


I fragmentation of the gondwana super continent creation of new oceans atlantic indian

Major tectonic systems operating during the past 200 My

II. Pacific System

  • East Pacific Rise (EPR) moving towards the Americas and away from Asia

  • Rimmed by subduction zones

    • Western Pacific

      • Subducting old oceanic lithosphere

      • Formation of back-arc basins and island arcs

    • Hot spot tracks

    • Eastern Pacific

      • Subducting young oceanic lithosphere

      • Andean type mountain building

      • Collision and accretion of exotic terranes

      • Collision of EPR with North America

Continued in western_usa.ppt


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