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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم. Transplacental infections. ( Reproductive Block , Microbiology : 2014 ). By: Dr.Malak El-Hazmi. OBJECTIVES;. Types of infant infections. Major transplacentaly transmitted pathogens causing congenital infections . Toxoplasma , Treponema pallidum ,

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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Transplacentalinfections

( Reproductive Block , Microbiology : 2014 )

By: Dr.Malak El-Hazmi


Objectives
OBJECTIVES;

  • Types of infant infections.

  • Major transplacentaly transmitted pathogens causing congenital infections .

    Toxoplasma ,

    Treponema pallidum ,

    Parvovirus ,

    Varicella Zoster Virus,

    Rubella virus ,

    Cytomegalovirus.

Their major features & epidemiology .

Manifestations of congenital infection.

Diagnosis of congenital infection.

Their Treatment and Prevention.



Congenital infections
Congenital infections

  • mostly viruses

  • previously known as ( TORCH) infections:

    T= Toxoplasmosis,

    O=Others

    (syphilis ,parvovirus &VZV),

    R=Rubella V,

    C=CMV,

    H=Herpes( Hepatitis &HIV),


Congenital infections1
Congenital infections

Risk of IUI & fetal damage ;

  • Type of org.(teratogenic)

  • Type of maternal inf.(1o,R)

  • Time of inf .(1st ,2ndor 3rd)

  • 1o Maternal infection in the first half of pregnancy

  • poses the greatest risk to the fetus


Congenital infections2
Congenital infections

Common Findings

  • Intrauterine growth retardation(IUGR)

  • Hepatosplenomegaly(HSM)

  • Thrombocytopenia

  • Microcephaly

    Majority of CI (“asymptomatic”) at birth

  • Preventative and therapeutic measures ;

  • possible for some of the agents


Absence of fetal IgM at birth

does not exclude infection


Transplacental infections torc h
Transplacentalinfections( TORCH)

T= Toxoplasmosis

Congenital Toxoplasmosis

O=Other

(syphilis ,parvovirus &VZV)

R=RubellaV

C=CMV


Toxoplasma Gondii

  • Obligate intracellular parasite

  • Three forms:

Bradyzoites:

Oocysts;

Tachyzoites:

Immunity +

Immunity -

  • Shed in cat feces

  • rapidly dividing forms

  • ACUTE PHASE

  • slowly dividing forms

  • CHRONIC PHASE


Toxoplasma gondii,

  • Ingestion of oocyst:

  • Contaminated fingers,soil,water

  • Ingestion of cyst in undercooked meat.

  • Blood transfusion and organ transplant

TRANSMISSION:


TOXO

  • Congenital infection ;

  • Most cases, due to 10 maternal inf.

  • Rarely, reactivation of a latent inf.


Congenital infection

TOXO

Congenital infection ;

  • Most (70-90%) areasymptomaticat birth

    but are still at high risk of developing abnormalities,

    especially eye (chorioretinitis )/neurologic disease(MR) later.

  • Classic triad :

  • Other signs include ;

    rash, HSM, jaundice, LAP, microcephaly, seizures, thrombocytopenia.

  • Abortion & IUD.

  • Intracranial calcifications

  • Chorioretinitis

Hydrocephalus


TOXO

Dx

  • Pregnant mother

    • Serology;

    • IgM,

    • IgG

    • IgG avidity

    • IgG seroconversion

      compared to booking blood.

Infant

*Prenatal Dx;

  • PCR

  • Culture

  • Serial U/S

    *Postnatal Dx;

  • Serology;

    • IgM, IgA,

    • IgG or persistently +ve >12 ms

  • PCR

  • Culture

  • Evalution of infant

    (ex, neuroimaging)


TOXO

Rx

  • Spiramycin.

  • pyrimethamine& sulfadiazine.

  • Prevention

    • Avoid exposure to cat feces;

    • Wash ;- hands with soap and water

    • - fruits/vegetables,

    • - surfaces that touched

    • fruits/vegetables/raw meat.

    • Cook all meats thoroughly


Transplacental infections torc h1
Transplacentalinfections( TORCH)

T= Toxoplasmosis,

O=Other

(syphilis ,Parvovirus &VZV),

R=Rubella V

C=CMV


Parvovirus b 19
Parvovirus B19

Epidemiology:

Parvoviridae

non developed V.

Icosahedral capsid

& s.s DNA genome.

  • Worldwide distribution

  • Humans are known hosts

  • Transmission

    • Respiratory route

    • Transplacental route

    • Blood transfusion


Clinical presentation

Parvo

Clinical presentation;

1.Acquired infection;

*Immunocompetent host *Immunocompromised pts

Erythema infectiosum

2.Congenital infection;


Congenital infection1

Parvo

Congenital infection

  • Risk of congenital infection is greatest when inf occur in 1st20 wks

  • Inf in the 1st trimester IUD (Intrauterine death)

  • Inf in the 2 nd trimester HF(Hydrops fetalis)

  • Inf in the 3 rd trimester Lowest risk

  • Cause fetal loss through hydrops fetalis,severe anaemia,CHF, generalized oedema and fetal death


Parvo

Dx

Rx:

Intrauterine transfusion

  • Pregnant mother;

    • Specific IgM.

    • IgG seroconversion.

  • Prenatal Dx;

    • Not grow in c/c.

    • PCR

    • U/S (hydrops)

Prevention:

  • Hygiene practice

  • No vaccine (TRIAL)


Transplacental infections torc h2
Transplacentalinfections( TORCH)

T= Toxoplasmosis,

O=Other

(syphilis ,Parvovirus &VZV),

R=Rubella V

C=CMV


V aricella z oster v irus vzv
VaricellaZosterVirusVZV

  • Herpesviridae

  • dsDNA , Enveloped , Icosahedral Virus

  • Transmission

    • Respiratory route

    • Transplacental

  • Clinical presentations

    • Acquired infection ;

      • Varicella : Chickenpox:

        • 1o illness

        • Generalized vesicular rash

      • Zoster: Shingles:

        • Recurrent form

        • Localized VR

  • Congenital infection ;


Vzv infection in pregnancy
VZV infection in Pregnancy

  • Primary infection is rare Why?

  • Primary infection carries a greater risk of severe disease,

    in particular pneumonia

    Intrauterine infections

  • congenital varicella syndrome ;

  • 1st 20 weeks of Pregnancy

  • The incidence of congenital varicella syndrome is ~ 2%

    • Scarring of skin

    • Hypoplasia of limbs

    • CNS defects

    • eye defects

  • Neonatal varicella ;

    • < 5 days of delivery severe disease

    • > 5 days before delivery mild disease


Diagnosis

vzv

Pregnant mother

  • Direct ex:

    • Vesicular fluid for

      virusisolation

    • Cellsscraping from the base of vesicles

      ImmunoFluorescent test (Ag)

    • DNA-HSV by PCR

  • Serological test:

    IgM AB*

  • Infant;

  • Prenatal Dx

    • VZV DNA in FB or AF or placenta villi

    • VZV IgM in FB.

    • U/S

  • B. Postnatal Dx

    • VZV IgM

    • virusisolation

    • VZVDNA in VF

    • or CSF ( CNS INF )


vzv

Rx

  • Acyclovir

Prevention;

Pre exposure;

live-attenuated vaccines.

  • Post exposure;

  • VZIG

    • susceptible pregnant women have been exposed to VZV.

    • infants whose mothers develop V < 5 days of delivery

    • or the first 2 days after delivery.


Transplacental infections torc h3
Transplacentalinfections( TORCH)

T= Toxoplasmosis

O=Other

(syphilis ,Parvovirus &VZV)

R=Rubella V

C=CMV


Rubella virus
Rubella Virus

Togaviridae

  • SS RNA genome

    Icosahedral capsid

    Enveloped Virus

Epidemiology:

  • Humans

  • Transmission

    • Respiratory route

    • Transplacental route

  • A world wide distribution ed . ?



RV

Clinical manifestation:

  • Acquired infection ;

    Ex. Maculopapular rash

    (German measles)

  • Congenital infection;

    Normal CRS IUD

  • Risk of acquiring congenital rubella infection varies and depends on gestational age of the fetus at the time of maternal infection.

    gestational age risk to fetus

  • 0-12 wks 70%

  • 13-16 wks 20%

  • >16 wks Infrequent


Congenital rubella syndrome
Congenital Rubella Syndrome

affecting eyes, ears & heart

Triad of abnormalities

  • Sensorineural hearing loss*

  • Cataracts and glaucoma

  • Cardiac malformations

    ( patent ductus arteriosus )

  • Neurologic defects

  • Others

    growth retardation,

    bone disease,

    HSM, thrombocytopenia,

    “blueberry muffin” lesions

“Blueberry muffin” spots


RV

Dx;

Pregnant mother

  • Serological diagnosis

  • Rubella specific IgM

  • Seroconversion compared to booking blood

    Infant

  • Cell culture & RT-PCR

    (aminiotic fluid, chorionic villi)fetus

    (nasal secretion,throat,urine blood) newborn

  • Serological diagnosis

    • Rubella specific IgM

    • Persistance & rising titres of anti-rubella

      IgGAbs in the infants serum beyond 9-12 months of age


Prevention:

  • Routine antenatal screening:

    Rubella specific IgG

    Non-immune  women   vaccination

    ( avoid pregnancy for 3 months).

  • vaccination:

    - before or after pregnancy but not during pregnancy.

    Why ?


Transplacental infections torc h4
Transplacentalinfections( TORCH)

T= Toxoplasmosis,

O=Other

(syphilis ,Parvovirus &VZV),

R=Rubella V

C=CMV


C yto m egalo v irus cmv
Cytomegalovirus CMV*

Epidemiology

Human ,worldwide .

Transmission(tn)

1- Horizontal tn

  • Young children: saliva

  • Later in life: sexual contact

  • Blood transfusion

    &organ transplant

    2- Vertical tn

    10 CMV inf . Recurrent CMV inf

    (~40%) (~1%)

  • Herpesviridae

    • dsDNA , Enveloped ,

    • Icosahedral Virus.

  • Establishes in latent form

  • reactivation

  • Recurrent inf


CMV

Congenital Infections:

Clinically normal

Blueberry muffin” spots

15% Hearing defect mental retardation

4% Cytomegalic inclusion disease

1% death


Cytomegalic inclusion disease
Cytomegalic Inclusion Disease;

Ventriculomegaly & calcifications

of congenital CMV

  • CNS abnormalities - microcephaly,

    periventricular calcification.

  • Eye - chorioretinitis

  • Ear - sensorineural deafness

  • Liver – HSM and jaundice.

  • Lung - pneumonitis

  • Heart - myocarditis

  • Thrombocytopenic purpura


CMV

Dx.

  • Prenatal :

    • PCR .

    • culture

    • CMV specific IgM

    • Ultrasound

  • Postnatal:

    by isolating CMV in first 3 wks of life.

    • Body fluid : urine, saliva, blood.

    • By

      • Standard tube culture method

      • Shell vial assay

        Histology;

  • Detection of Cytomegalic Inclusion

    Bodies in affected tissue

    Serology; CMV IgM

  • Maternal :

    Serology ;

    • CMV IgM

    • CMV IgG

    • CMV IgG avidity

Intranuclear I B [Owl’s -eye]


CMV

Rx

  • Symptomatic infants ? Ganciclovir .

  • Asymptomatic infants not recommended .

  • Prevention !?

    • Education about CMV

    • & how to prevent it

    • through hygiene;

    • hand washing

    • Vaccine is not available

  • (TRIAL)


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