How do we describe personality?
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How do we describe personality?. Hans Eysenck (d. 9/4/97): Inspired by history, especially Hippocrates (460-370 bc) and Galen (129-203 ad). Low E. Phlegmatic. Melancholic. Low N. High N. Sanguine. Choleric. High E. How do we describe personality?.

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How do we describe personality?

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How do we describe personality

How do we describe personality?

Hans Eysenck (d. 9/4/97): Inspired by history, especially Hippocrates (460-370 bc) and Galen (129-203 ad)

Low E

Phlegmatic

Melancholic

Low N

High N

Sanguine

Choleric

High E


How do we describe personality

How do we describe personality?

Raymond Cattell (1943; d. 2/2/98) The lexical hypothesis:

“All aspects of human personality which are or have been of importance, interest, or utility, have already become recorded in the substance of language”

Allport & Odbert (1936)

17,953 words “distinguish the behavior or one human being from that of another”

4,504 words represent “consistent and stable modes” or “determining tendencies”

Norman (1963)

18,125 words to describe people

8,081 words not evaluative, ambiguous, clear, and not physical traits

1,600 familiar words

75 clusters

Cattell (1957)

171 non-redundant/synonymous words

Factor analysis


How do we describe personality

  • 1234567

  • I did what had to be done-.10.75-.05.03.12.00

  • 2. I learned to live with it--.02.52.61-.07-.08

  • 3. I tried to get rid of it-.17.00.09.15

  • 4. I accepted that it was there-.71.11.08

  • 5. I tried to see it in a different light-.06-.04

  • 6. I slept more than usual-.59

  • 7. I daydreamed about other things-


How do we describe personality

Factor: ABCD

1. I did what had to be done.62.15.01-.12

2. I learned to live with it.03-.08.49.08

3. I tried to get rid of it.54.04-.20.16

4. I accepted that it was there.10.11.56.03

5. I tried to see it in a different light.07.08.50.02

6. I slept more than usual-.02.72.12-.13

7. I daydreamed about other things.08.48.08.08


How do we describe personality

Raymond Cattell (1943; d. 2/2/98)

“All aspects of human personality which are or have been of importance, interest, or utility, have already become recorded in the substance of language”

16 factors, including:

Reactive vs. emotionally stable

Relaxed vs. tense

Self-assured vs. apprehensive

Tolerates disorder vs. perfectionistic

Shy vs. socially bold

Serious vs. lively

Forthright vs. private

Dominant vs. deferential


How do we describe personality

How do we describe personality?

Lewis Goldberg: The Big 5

E: The largest number of closely related words

A: The next largest

C: And so on

N: And so on

O: The smallest number, loosely related words; the worst-defined factor

Costa and McCrae: The Big 3 (plus 2) = The Five-Factor Model

N and E: The most common personality dimensions in personality theory

O: Accounts for existential theories (e.g., self-actualization)

Convinced in 1981 by Big 5 research to include A and C


How do we describe personality

How do we describe personality?

The Big 5/Five Factors

OCEAN

Other structures?

NEO

CEAN

OCEAN + PV and NV (The Big 7; Tellegen)

O C eX A nE + Honesty/humility (HEXACO; Ashton & Lee)

trustworthy, honest, humble, faithful

versus greedy, venal, hypocritical, conceited


How do we describe personality

Hofstee, deRaad, & Goldberg, 1992


How do we describe personality

How do we describe personality?

Why would we have developed language to describe personality in these five terms?

E: Can I dominate this person?

A: Can I get along with this person?

C: Can I work with this person?

N: Is this person “crazy” or “sane”?

O: Can I teach this person?

How might personality have changed during evolution?


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