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Forward Kinematics and JacobiansPowerPoint Presentation

Forward Kinematics and Jacobians

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### Forward Kinematics and Jacobians

Kris Hauser

CS B659: Principles of Intelligent Robot Motion

Spring2013

q2

q1

Articulated Robot- Robot: usually a rigid articulated structure
- Geometric CAD models, relative to reference frames
- A configuration specifies the placement of those frames (forward kinematics)

Forward Kinematics

- Given:
- A kinematic reference frame of the robot
- Joint angles q1,…,qn

- Find rigid frames T1,…,Tn relative to T0
- A frame T=(R,t) consists of a rotation R and a translation t so that T·x = R·x + t
- Make notation easy: use homogeneous coordinates
- Transformation composition goes from right to left:T1·T2 indicates the transformation T2 first, then T1

After rotating joint 2

q2

T2R

T0

q1

Denote T2->1ref= (T1ref)-1·T2ref(frame relative to parent)

T2(q1,q2) = T1(q1) ·T2->1ref·R(q2)

T2(q1,q2)

T3(q1,..,q3)

T1(q1)

T4(q1,…,q4)

General FormulaDenote (ref frame relative to parent)

L2

T0

L3

L1

L0

Generalization to tree structures

- Topological sort: p[k] = parent of link k
- Denote (frame i relative to parent)
- Let A(i) be the list of ancestors of i (sorted from root to i)

To 3D…

- Much the same, except joint axis must be defined (relative to parent)
- Angle-axis parameterization

Generalizations

- Prismatic joints
- Ball joints
- Prismatic joints
- Spirals
- Free-floating bases

From LaValle, Planning Algorithms

The Jacobian Matrix

- The Jacobian of a function x = f(q), with and is the m x n matrix of partial derivatives
- Typically written J(q)
- (Note the dependence on q)

f1/q1 … f1/qn

… …

fm/q1 … fm/qn

Significance

- If x is an end effector, multiplying J(q) with a joint velocity vector gives the end effector velocity

(x,y)

L

q

Computing Jacobians in general

- How do we compute it?
- Consider derivative w.r.t. qj

T2(q1,q2)

T3(q1,..,q3)

T1(q1)

T4(q1,…,q4)

Consequences…- Column j of position JacobianJx(q) is the speed at which x would change if joint j rotated alone
- Perpendicular and equal in magnitude to vector from x to joint axis
- Larger when x is farther from the joint axis

xk

L2

T0

L3

L1

T2(q1,q2)

T3(q1,..,q3)

T1(q1)

T4(q1,…,q4)

Orientation Jacobian- Consider end effector orientation θ(q) in plane
- All entries of Jθ(q) corresponding to revolute joints are 1!
- In 3D, column j is identical to the axis of rotation of joint j (in world space) at configuration q

xk

L2

T0

L3

L1

Total Jacobian

- Total Jacobian J(q) is the matrix formed by stacking Jx(q), Jθ(q)
- 3 rows in 2D, 6 rows in 3D

Next class: Inverse Kinematics

- Readings on schedule:
- Wang and Chen (1991)
- Duindam et al (2008)

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