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Review. Who is Europa? What was the success of the Minoans? According to some frescoes, what was the role of women in Minoan society? What is Homer credited with writing?. aristocracy. Frescoes. Democracy. straits. phalanx. oligarchy.

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  • Who is Europa?

  • What was the success of the Minoans?

  • According to some frescoes, what was the role of women in Minoan society?

  • What is Homer credited with writing?







  • (a.) Peloponnesus - peninsular area of ancient Greece

    (b) Solon - Greek leader who brought greater equality to citizens and freed debt slaves

    (c) Cleisthenes - set up council of 500, chosen by lot

    (d) Zeus - most powerful Greek god

2. (a) polis - city (b) acropolis - city on a hill (c) monarchy - rule by king (d) aristocracy - land-owning elite (e) oligarchy - rule by a small aristocracy (f) phalanx – formation of heavily armed foot soldiers (g) helot – state-owned slaves (h) democracy – government by the people (i) tyrant – someone who gains power by force (j) legislature – law-making body

3. Geography influenced Greece in that mountain ranges prevented unification of city-states and made communication slower

4. a)Wealthy landowners gained power because they could afford weapons (b) the phalanx affected Greek society because it equalized status among those in the formation

5. Spartans – education focused on war and military training; Athens – education focused on music, arts, poetry, oration (public speaking)

6. Religion, language, geography helped tied the Greek city-states

7. Greek democracy was limited from women, poor, slaves, foreigners

8. Greek superiority strengthened society in war because it gave them confidence but it weakened society because it prevented them from learning from other cultures.


  • 1750-1500 B.C.

  • Inhabited modern Crete

  • Spoke Greek

  • Were a maritime culture; like the Phoenicians

  • Influenced by Egyptian Art

  • Knossos – a palace with colorful frescoes

    • Frescoe is painting with dyed plaster

  • Decline – Volcano? Invaders?


  • 1400 – 1200 B.C.

  • Conquered Greek mainland, then Crete

  • Created the Trojan War legend

  • Around this time Homer wrote the Iliad and Odyssey

    • Where we get a lot of information about Greek society

  • Decline – sea raiders

  • Trojans in Troy


    Heinrich Schliemann

    Military Advances

    • Fighting in a phalanx

    • Iron weapons

    • Other weapons


    • Dorians who took over the Peloponnesus

    • Made natives their slaves, called helots

    • Military government

    • Men and women supported the lifestyle

    • Citizens were men, age 30, and native born


    • People demand democracy – succession of weakened aristocracy

    • Solon – 594 B.C.

      -appointed archon

      -outlawed debt slavery

      -expanded Athenian assembly

    • Pisistratus – 546 B.C.

      - gave land and loans to farmers

    • Cliesthenes – 507 B.C.

      - formed 500 member council and made assembly a “legislature”


    • What two cultures existed before what we think of as traditional Greek cultures of Athens and Sparta?

    • Why do the Minoans feature dolphins on their frescoes?

    • How did the location of ancient Crete affect the development of that society?

    • What political ideal do we get from Greek society?

    EQ: How was Greek democracy different from ours today?

    Constitution Day EQ

    • What political ideal do we get from Greek society?

    • Who’s ideas influenced our constitution?


    • Boys trained for life in democracy

    • Girls – not so much

    Read page 108 - 109, Primary Source sidebar

    Answer EQ

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