FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY IN SELECTED UNGULATE SPECIES IN AL AIN WILDLIFE PARK...
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FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY IN SELECTED UNGULATE SPECIES IN AL AIN WILDLIFE PARK AND RESORT, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES. By: Chege S.M., Kitala , P. & Muchemi G. Introduction. AWPR (Formerly Al Ain Zoo) founded in 1968 by the late Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan

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By: Chege S.M., Kitala , P. & Muchemi G.

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By chege s m kitala p muchemi g

FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY IN SELECTED UNGULATE SPECIES IN AL AIN WILDLIFE PARK AND RESORT, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.

By:

ChegeS.M., Kitala, P. & Muchemi G.


Introduction

Introduction

  • AWPR (Formerly Al Ain Zoo) founded in 1968 by the late Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan

  • Importance of zoos – education, conservation, exhibition(Goossenset al. 2005)

  • Ex-situ conservation challenges- resistance to diseases, naivety to predators, Inbreeding (few founders)


Objectives

Objectives

  • Overall objective

    • To investigate the causes of morbidity and mortality in some selected ungulate species in the zoo

  • Specific objectives

    • Estimate crude and cause-specific morbidity and mortality rates

    • Determine the risk factors associated with morbidity and mortality


Materials and methods

Materials and methods

  • Study area - Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort (Latitude 24°10'45.37"N, Longitude 55°44'19.99"E), Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates

  • Climate – Long summer (temperatures > 50oc) and short winter (≤ 6oc). Average annual rainfall >100mm

  • Study design – Historical data(6yrs) and follow up study (6mo)

  • Data analysis – Excel, Genstat, Univariate and multivariate analysis (Logistic regression-backward elimination)


Study population

Study population


Study pop continued

Study pop continued


Results

Results

  • Sex and age structure – (1Y:6A), (1M:1F), Arabian oryx neonates (2M:1F)

  • Feed – Alfalfa, hay, & pellets

  • 1keeper per 100 animals

  • Vet care – team, clinic, vaccination program

  • 2005-2010 morbidity cases = 1021. Arabian Oryx(28.5%) and Speke’s gazelle(27%)


Previous population 2004 2010

Previous population (2004-2010)


Morbidity and mortality trends 2005 2010

Morbidity and Mortality trends (2005-2010)


Major causes of morbidity mortality

Major causes of Morbidity & Mortality

Mortality causes

  • Septicaemia(38%)

  • Trauma (25%)

  • Reproductive disorders (12%)

  • Pneunomia (8%)

  • Diarrhoea (6%)

  • Unknown (6%)

  • Nutritional deficiencies (3%)

Morbidity causes

  • Trauma (40%)

  • Septicaemia(18%)

  • Diarrhoea(16%)

  • Reproductive disorders(9%)

  • Pneumonia(6%)

  • Nutritional deficiency(5%)

  • Unknown (5%)


Risk factors morbidity mortality

Risk factors -Morbidity & Mortality


Discussion

Discussion

  • Morbidity and mortality increases with increased herd size (Lance et al. 1992; Silva del Rio et al. 2007)

  • Biased sex ratio of 2:1of the Arabian oryx newborns. Price (1989) reported a similar finding. On the contrary, Vie (1996),observed a sex ratio of 1:1

  • Neonates were 7x and 23x likely to get sick or die respectively…other similar reports ;Heinrichsand Radostits, (2001), Morrow et al. (1999),.

  • Lower birth weights recorded – may be related to inbreeding


Conclusion recommendation

Conclusion & Recommendation

  • Conclusion

  • True rates of morbidity(19.2%) and mortality (11.3%) per animal-month respectively – high

  • Trauma as leading cause of morbidity. Young die more than old. Low birth weights

  • Recommendations

  • Trauma – manage overcrowding , single male & several females

  • Initiate studies on genetic viability and maternal relatedness of the population


By chege s m kitala p muchemi g

Thank you for your attention


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