what you need to know about baselines and targets
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What You Need to Know About Baselines and Targets. Presentation Outline. Defining Baseline data Tips in Collecting Baseline data Uses of baseline data Performance Targets Why the emphasis on targets? Tips in Performance target setting. Defining Baseline Data.

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Presentation Transcript
presentation outline
Presentation Outline
  • Defining Baseline data
  • Tips in Collecting Baseline data
  • Uses of baseline data
  • Performance Targets
  • Why the emphasis on targets?
  • Tips in Performance target setting
defining baseline data
Defining Baseline Data
  • A baseline is a quantifiable point from which to begin an effort and from which change can be measured and documented.
  • Performance baselines reflect, as closely as possible, the value of each performance indicator at the start of USAID-supported activities that contribute to the achievement of the relevant strategic element.
  • The baseline of a milestone indicator describes the status at the start of the intervention. (See ADS 203.3.6)
important notes about baseline data
Important Notes about Baseline Data
  • Where baseline information is inadequate, many IPs initiate a data collection effort
  • The first set of data collected on these indicators becomes, in effect, the formal baseline against which targets are set and future progress is assessed.
uses of baseline data
Uses of Baseline data
  • It is used to assess progress towards the achievement of goals and;
  • It is used to provide a comparison for assessing program impact

Important Note: Without an accurate

baseline, variances may not

be detected & addressed with

corrective action plans

tip 1 collecting baseline data
Tip 1 Collecting Baseline data
  • Keep it focused-Ensure

that the right data—and only

the right data—is collected,

that repetitions are avoided

  • Keep it meaningful.-Use correct measures to collect meaning and useful data
tip 2
Tip 2
  • Keep it consistent- Data must be collected routinely anddata collection should be based on a set of agreed-upon definitions.
  • These definitions need to be universally understood by employees, managers, partners, suppliers, and even clients/beneficiaries
without a yardstick there is no measurement without measurement there is no control anonymous
Without a yardstick, there is no measurement;without measurement, there is no control. Anonymous
performance targets
Performance Targets
  • Performance targets are

quantifiable estimates or

expected results to be

achieved within a given

time frame 

  • It is against these targets that performance improvement will be measured. 
types of performance targets
Types of Performance Targets
  • Quantitative:

- Numerical in nature

- They identify how much of a change is expected from year to year.

- Depicts an increase or decrease.

(TIP Series Number 8)

types of performance targets1
Types of Performance Targets
  • Qualitative

- Descriptive in nature

- Qualitative information can be transformed into quantitative scales against which targets can be set

(TIP Series Number 8)

performance targets answer
Performance targets answer….
  • Absolute level of achievement

Example: 7000 new jobs created

  • Change in level of achievement

Example: Yields Per hectare increased by 5% from 1996- 2002

importance of setting targets
Importance of setting targets
  • It is a standard requirement for USG funded projects
  • Provide justification for funding programs
  • Serve as guideposts for judging progress towards long term goals
importance of targets
Importance of targets
  • Provides the road map for performance improvement.
  • Used to learnand make changesthereby benefiting project or program
  • Measures the efficiency and effectiveness of improvements to project or program outcomes or outputs.
tip 1 setting performance targets
TIP 1 Setting Performance Targets
  • Review baselines and trends

Current and/or historical performance

data in the relevant areas. This

information must be considered

in the context of the factors that contributed to the trends and whether or not those factors will still be relevant in the future.

tip 21
  • Know customer/beneficiaries expectations of progress

While targets should be set on an objective basis of what can be accomplished given certain

conditions and resources, it is useful to get input

from customers regarding what they want, need

tip 3
  • Use a collaborative approach by involving the relevant stakeholders

Experience, perspective, and expertise should be leveraged at all levels of the organization—in particular from service providers who have critical insight into what is truly possible to achieve.  This type of collaborative approach improves the chance that the relevant individuals will take ownership and be willing to be held accountable for progress.

tip 4
  • Seek experts opinion and research literature

- Experts should be knowledgeable about the program area as well as about local conditions.

- Similarly, a review of development literature, especially research and evaluation findings, may help in choosing realistic targets.

tip 5
  • Check Similar Program Accomplishments elsewhere

Checking progress of other IPs or other development agencies and partners achievements with similar programs and using this information to set ambitious but achievable targets is known as bench-marking.

tip 6
  • Targets should be realistic & Achievable

Targets must be challenging, in that they “stretch” the organization to improve but are realistic enough to be attained. 

tip 7


  • Set annual performance targets.

This approach is similar to the preceding, except it is based on judgments about what can be achieved each year, instead of starting with a final performance level and working backwards.