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1750-1914. The Age of European Hegemony. The West gains strength. West now included North America Industrial Revolution began ca 1750 in Great Britain Spread throughout Northern Europe, North America Massive coal deposits in Europe, North America aided industrialization

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1750 1914


The Age of European Hegemony

The west gains strength
The West gains strength

  • West now included North America

  • Industrial Revolution began ca 1750 in Great Britain

  • Spread throughout Northern Europe, North America

  • Massive coal deposits in Europe, North America aided industrialization

  • Industrial, communication, transportation improvements

Reasons for western expansion since 1750
Reasons for Western Expansion Since 1750

  • The Three “shuns” (only for memory purposes, don’t use this term in essays!)

  • Industrialization: wealth, weapons, technology

  • Organization: nation-state competition, joint stock companies (corporations)

  • Exploitation: the ability of West to dominate and exploit other regions for raw materials, markets for finished goods

Influence of the enlightenment
Influence of the Enlightenment

  • Use of reason, logic rather than reliance on emotion, tradition

  • Opposition to absolute monarchy, power of the Church

  • Call for freedom, religious tolerance, constitutional government

  • Adam Smith: The Wealth of Nations, laissez-faire capitalism

Revolutions of late 1700s
Revolutions of Late 1700s

  • American Revolution: Enlightenment influence, opposition to British mercantile policies

  • French Revolution: American example, Enlightenment influence, opposition by bourgeoisie to absolute power of monarchy.

  • Napoleon Bonaparte in power 1797-1815 (typical pattern)

  • Championed ideals of Revolution, but declared himself Emperor

  • Conquered much of Europe

  • Armies spread Enlightenment ideals, nationalism throughout Europe

  • Napoleon defeated and exiled 1815

Utopian socialism
Utopian Socialism and Church

  • Advocated end to private property

  • Government ownership of industry, transportation, communication

  • End to social classes

Marxism scientific socialism or communism
Marxism (Scientific Socialism or Communism) and Church

  • Karl Marx: The Communist Manifesto, Das Kapital

  • History determined by economic forces

  • Haves versus Have Nots in constant struggle

  • Proletariat (workers) will destroy Bourgeoisie

  • Classless society, no religion, no government, no classes

Nineteenth century europe
Nineteenth Century Europe and Church

  • 1848 Year of Revolutions brought more liberal governments in most countries

  • Nationalism led to unrest in Austria, Ottoman Empire, Russia, and other multi-national states

  • Unification of Italy, Germany

  • Industrialization continued, revolutions in transportation, communications

  • Demands for worker’s, women’s rights

  • Artistic, scientific progress

Imperialism increased militarism, arms race

  • Influence of Social Darwinism: survival of the fittest

  • Economic need for markets, raw materials

  • Nationalist pressure for empire

  • Need to provide employment, room for excess population

  • Laissez-faire capitalism

India under british rule
India Under British Rule increased militarism, arms race

  • British East India Company controlled Mughal tax system

  • Company controlled sepoy army (better equipped than Mughal forces)

  • 1757 Battle of Plassey, beginning of British Raj (1757-1947)

  • British East India Company controlled India until 1857

  • 1857 Sepoy Rebellion increased militarism, arms race

  • British government took direct control of India after Rebellion’s end.

  • Queen Victoria declared Empress of India

  • “The Jewel in the Crown” of the British Empire

  • India forced into dependence on West, industries bankrupted

Three types of colonies
Three Types of Colonies Tasmania, Hawaii

  • White Dominions: “Little Europes” Canada, Australia, New Zealand, US. Indigenous peoples marginalized, powerless

  • Tropical Dependencies: Large indigenous populations controlled by small European population: India, most of Africa, S.E. Asia

  • Contested Settler Colonies: Indigenous population equal to or larger than Europeans, struggle for control: South Africa

South africa and boer war
South Africa and Boer War Tasmania, Hawaii

  • South Africa part of British Empire, Boers retreated (Great Trek) to Orange Free State, Transvaal, Natal

  • Discovery of diamonds by Cecil Rhodes led to British expansion into Boer Republics

  • Boer War 1900-02: British victory, but confidence shaken

Latin america in nineteenth century
Latin America in Nineteenth Century Tasmania, Hawaii

  • Spanish and Portuguese colonies influenced by Enlightenment, American and French Revolutions

  • 1791 Haiti Revolution: hope to slaves and mestizoes,mulattos, fear to creoles

Mexico Tasmania, Hawaii

  • 1810 Father Hidalgo led Revolution of mestizoes, slaves, Native Americans. Failure, no creole support

  • 1821 Creole Revolution gained independence from Spain

  • Conservative

Brazil Tasmania, Hawaii

  • Portuguese colony

  • Refuge for Portuguese royal family during Napoleonic era

  • 1822 son of King of Portugal declared independence, became Emperor Pedro I

  • Conservative revolution

South america
South America Tasmania, Hawaii

  • Liberal revolutions patterned on American Revolution

  • Simon Bolivar (North) and Jose de San Martin (South)

  • Democratic governments set up modeled on United States. Most overthrown by military rulers (caudillos)

Ottoman empire
Ottoman Empire 1823

  • The Sick Man of Europe

  • Wars with Russia, Austria, nationalistic pressures in Balkans, European economic competition

  • Conservative influence of Janissaries

  • Tanzimat Reforms 1839-1876: Modernization and Westernization, decline continued

Muslim world
Muslim World 1823

  • European domination

  • Muhammad Ali attempted Westernization and industrialization in Egypt, failed because of British economic pressure.

  • Mahdi Revolt (jihad) late 1800s Sub-Saharan Africa. Failed because of European military power.

Qing dynasty china 1644 1911
Qing Dynasty China 1644-1911 1823

  • China continued to be wealthiest country until end of 1700s

  • Height of power under Emperors Kangxi and Qianlong

  • Early 1800s: Corruption of examination system. European economic pressure, internal problems

  • Opium trade (balance of trade)

  • Opium War 1839-1842: British weapons and naval power defeated Chinese

  • Treaty of Nanking guraranteed extraterritoriality for British

  • Other European nations forced Chinese into similar agreements

  • “Carving up the melon” China carved into spheres of influence.

Russia in the nineteenth century
Russia in the Nineteenth Century weakened China

  • 1825 Decembrist Revolt: attempt to bring more liberal government to Russia, failed

  • Reaction under Tsar Nicholas I 1825-1856

  • Crimean War 1854-1856: defeat for Russia

  • 1856-1881 Reforms under Tsar Alexander II

  • 1861 Serfdom abolished (same general period as elimination of slavery and slave trade)

  • Industrialization, construction of railroads

  • Absolute monarchy maintained

  • Terrorism increased in response to reforms

  • Alexander II assassinated, repression under Alexander III

  • 1905 Revolution forced Nicholas II to grant Duma, (legislature with little power)

Lenin of slavery and slave trade)

  • Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) modified Marxism to fit Russia, a country with small bourgeoisie, little industry, large peasant population

  • Marxism-Leninism: Revolution will not be a mass movement, but led by small, well disciplined elites.

Japan in the nineteenth century
Japan in the Nineteenth Century of slavery and slave trade)

  • Tokugawa Shogunate in power since 1600. Dutch Studies group studied outside world

  • Japanese aware of and concerned by the exploitation of China in the 1800s

  • 1853. US fleet under Matthew Perry arrived in Tokyo Bay, requested resumption of trade.

  • 1868: Meiji Restoration began: Period of rapid modernization,industrialization, westernization.

  • Zaibatsus established, cooperation between government, business (still a factor in Japanese economy).

  • Constitutional monarchy established using German model.