1750 1914
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1750-1914. The Age of European Hegemony. The West gains strength. West now included North America Industrial Revolution began ca 1750 in Great Britain Spread throughout Northern Europe, North America Massive coal deposits in Europe, North America aided industrialization

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1750 1914


The Age of European Hegemony

The west gains strength

The West gains strength

  • West now included North America

  • Industrial Revolution began ca 1750 in Great Britain

  • Spread throughout Northern Europe, North America

  • Massive coal deposits in Europe, North America aided industrialization

  • Industrial, communication, transportation improvements

Reasons for western expansion since 1750

Reasons for Western Expansion Since 1750

  • The Three “shuns” (only for memory purposes, don’t use this term in essays!)

  • Industrialization: wealth, weapons, technology

  • Organization: nation-state competition, joint stock companies (corporations)

  • Exploitation: the ability of West to dominate and exploit other regions for raw materials, markets for finished goods

Influence of the enlightenment

Influence of the Enlightenment

  • Use of reason, logic rather than reliance on emotion, tradition

  • Opposition to absolute monarchy, power of the Church

  • Call for freedom, religious tolerance, constitutional government

  • Adam Smith: The Wealth of Nations, laissez-faire capitalism

Revolutions of late 1700s

Revolutions of Late 1700s

  • American Revolution: Enlightenment influence, opposition to British mercantile policies

  • French Revolution: American example, Enlightenment influence, opposition by bourgeoisie to absolute power of monarchy.

The age of european hegemony

  • French Revolution: moderate, radical, moderate phase (typical pattern)

  • Moderate period 1789-1792: Constitutional monarchy

  • Radical period 1793-1794: Reign of Terror

  • Second Moderate period 1794-1795 (Thermidorean Reaction)

The age of european hegemony

  • Napoleon Bonaparte in power 1797-1815

  • Championed ideals of Revolution, but declared himself Emperor

  • Conquered much of Europe

  • Armies spread Enlightenment ideals, nationalism throughout Europe

  • Napoleon defeated and exiled 1815

The age of european hegemony

  • Congress of Vienna 1815: Conservative/Reactionary group attempted to end Revolutionary ideals in Europe

  • Conservative rule lasts until 1848 in most of Europe

The age of european hegemony

  • Conservatives: support traditional order, powers of the King and Church

  • Liberals: middle class franchise (vote), civil liberties, constitutional governments (most Europeans)

  • Radicals: working class (factories) democratic rule, limits or end to private property

Utopian socialism

Utopian Socialism

  • Advocated end to private property

  • Government ownership of industry, transportation, communication

  • End to social classes

Marxism scientific socialism or communism

Marxism (Scientific Socialism or Communism)

  • Karl Marx: The Communist Manifesto, Das Kapital

  • History determined by economic forces

  • Haves versus Have Nots in constant struggle

  • Proletariat (workers) will destroy Bourgeoisie

  • Classless society, no religion, no government, no classes

Nineteenth century europe

Nineteenth Century Europe

  • 1848 Year of Revolutions brought more liberal governments in most countries

  • Nationalism led to unrest in Austria, Ottoman Empire, Russia, and other multi-national states

  • Unification of Italy, Germany

  • Industrialization continued, revolutions in transportation, communications

  • Demands for worker’s, women’s rights

  • Artistic, scientific progress

The age of european hegemony

  • Technological development and nationalist pressure led to increased militarism, arms race

  • Buildup to World War I

  • Western societies in other areas: United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand



  • Influence of Social Darwinism: survival of the fittest

  • Economic need for markets, raw materials

  • Nationalist pressure for empire

  • Need to provide employment, room for excess population

  • Laissez-faire capitalism

India under british rule

India Under British Rule

  • British East India Company controlled Mughal tax system

  • Company controlled sepoy army (better equipped than Mughal forces)

  • 1757 Battle of Plassey, beginning of British Raj (1757-1947)

  • British East India Company controlled India until 1857

The age of european hegemony

  • 1857 Sepoy Rebellion

  • British government took direct control of India after Rebellion’s end.

  • Queen Victoria declared Empress of India

  • “The Jewel in the Crown” of the British Empire

  • India forced into dependence on West, industries bankrupted

The age of european hegemony

  • Similar policies followed by other imperialistic powers: France, Germany, Japan, United States, Belgium

  • European industrial power, wealth, and weaponry allowed imperial dominance: machine gun, dum-dum bullets

  • Battle of Omdurman

The age of european hegemony

  • Indigenous peoples exploited, killed off: Belgian Congo, Tasmania, Hawaii

  • New Zealand an exception: accomodation between British, Maoris

  • Scramble for Africa late 1800s (quinine made Africa safer for Europeans) only Liberia, Ethiopia,uncolonized

Three types of colonies

Three Types of Colonies

  • White Dominions: “Little Europes” Canada, Australia, New Zealand, US. Indigenous peoples marginalized, powerless

  • Tropical Dependencies: Large indigenous populations controlled by small European population: India, most of Africa, S.E. Asia

  • Contested Settler Colonies: Indigenous population equal to or larger than Europeans, struggle for control: South Africa

South africa and boer war

South Africa and Boer War

  • South Africa part of British Empire, Boers retreated (Great Trek) to Orange Free State, Transvaal, Natal

  • Discovery of diamonds by Cecil Rhodes led to British expansion into Boer Republics

  • Boer War 1900-02: British victory, but confidence shaken

Latin america in nineteenth century

Latin America in Nineteenth Century

  • Spanish and Portuguese colonies influenced by Enlightenment, American and French Revolutions

  • 1791 Haiti Revolution: hope to slaves and mestizoes,mulattos, fear to creoles



  • 1810 Father Hidalgo led Revolution of mestizoes, slaves, Native Americans. Failure, no creole support

  • 1821 Creole Revolution gained independence from Spain

  • Conservative



  • Portuguese colony

  • Refuge for Portuguese royal family during Napoleonic era

  • 1822 son of King of Portugal declared independence, became Emperor Pedro I

  • Conservative revolution

South america

South America

  • Liberal revolutions patterned on American Revolution

  • Simon Bolivar (North) and Jose de San Martin (South)

  • Democratic governments set up modeled on United States. Most overthrown by military rulers (caudillos)

The age of european hegemony

  • US influence on Latin America began with Monroe Doctrine 1823

  • Mexican-American War 1846-1848 saw loss of territory to US

  • 1862-1865 French takeover of Mexico (Maximilian von Hapsburg) ended after US Civil War.

Ottoman empire

Ottoman Empire

  • The Sick Man of Europe

  • Wars with Russia, Austria, nationalistic pressures in Balkans, European economic competition

  • Conservative influence of Janissaries

  • Tanzimat Reforms 1839-1876: Modernization and Westernization, decline continued

Muslim world

Muslim World

  • European domination

  • Muhammad Ali attempted Westernization and industrialization in Egypt, failed because of British economic pressure.

  • Mahdi Revolt (jihad) late 1800s Sub-Saharan Africa. Failed because of European military power.

Qing dynasty china 1644 1911

Qing Dynasty China 1644-1911

  • China continued to be wealthiest country until end of 1700s

  • Height of power under Emperors Kangxi and Qianlong

  • Early 1800s: Corruption of examination system. European economic pressure, internal problems

  • Opium trade (balance of trade)

The age of european hegemony

  • Opium War 1839-1842: British weapons and naval power defeated Chinese

  • Treaty of Nanking guraranteed extraterritoriality for British

  • Other European nations forced Chinese into similar agreements

  • “Carving up the melon” China carved into spheres of influence.

The age of european hegemony

  • Taiping Rebellion early 1860s: semi-Christian rebellion weakened China

  • Self-Strengthening Movement 1870s-1880s: Failed attempt at westernization

  • Boxer Rebellion 1900: last attempt to drive out Westerners

  • 1911 Revolution, Chinese Republic under Dr. Sun Yat-sen

Russia in the nineteenth century

Russia in the Nineteenth Century

  • 1825 Decembrist Revolt: attempt to bring more liberal government to Russia, failed

  • Reaction under Tsar Nicholas I 1825-1856

  • Crimean War 1854-1856: defeat for Russia

  • 1856-1881 Reforms under Tsar Alexander II

The age of european hegemony

  • 1861 Serfdom abolished (same general period as elimination of slavery and slave trade)

  • Industrialization, construction of railroads

  • Absolute monarchy maintained

  • Terrorism increased in response to reforms

  • Alexander II assassinated, repression under Alexander III

  • 1905 Revolution forced Nicholas II to grant Duma, (legislature with little power)



  • Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) modified Marxism to fit Russia, a country with small bourgeoisie, little industry, large peasant population

  • Marxism-Leninism: Revolution will not be a mass movement, but led by small, well disciplined elites.

Japan in the nineteenth century

Japan in the Nineteenth Century

  • Tokugawa Shogunate in power since 1600. Dutch Studies group studied outside world

  • Japanese aware of and concerned by the exploitation of China in the 1800s

  • 1853. US fleet under Matthew Perry arrived in Tokyo Bay, requested resumption of trade.

The age of european hegemony

  • 1868: Meiji Restoration began: Period of rapid modernization,industrialization, westernization.

  • Zaibatsus established, cooperation between government, business (still a factor in Japanese economy).

  • Constitutional monarchy established using German model.

The age of european hegemony

  • Japanese military carved out sphere of influence in China.

  • Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905: Russia defeated

  • In face of rapid modernization, Japanese revived traditional religion of Shinto

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