Richard P. Barth, PhD University of Maryland School of Social Work Presented To Preventing Child Abuse in an Age of Budget Deficits A Future of Children Event. July 20, 2010 The Brookings Institution Washington, DC. Child Abuse Prevention Campaigns:
Richard P. Barth, PhDUniversity of MarylandSchool of Social WorkPresented ToPreventing Child Abuse in an Age of Budget DeficitsA Future of Children Event
July 20, 2010
The Brookings Institution
Child Abuse Prevention Campaigns:
“Just Enough” Parent Education Campaigns
Parent education serves > 800,000 children who have had contact with CWS each year
Parent education programs have also shown efficacy in reducing conduct problems—but no national estimates are available on numbers of children or families served
Most child abuse related parent education does not use a a strong evidence-base brand
Builds on a varied history of success of public health campaigns that promote targeting
Triple P is the best exemplar
Multiple levels correspond to parent need and interest
Cross-profession and agency consistency
Preliminary results are positive
Level 5: Enhanced Triple P
Level 4: Standard Triple P
Standard, Standard Stepping Stones, Group, Group Teen, Self-Directed
Level 3: Primary Care Triple P
Primary Care, Primary Care Teen
Level 2: Selected Triple P
Seminar, Individual Support, Teen
Level 1: Universal Triple P
Media (PSAs and TV)
A multilevel system increases a parent’s options
^Note that increases of CM were greater in the control group and out of home placements and CM injuries increased in the control group counties
The proportion of children involved with CWS who have behavior problems is substantial.
42% of children who come to the CWS have behavior problems at the clinical level at entrance (Burns et al., 2004)
The special education, mental health, and related costs of conduct problems are substantial (Knapp et al., 2001; Scott, 2007; Cohen, 1999)
Reduction in Child Abuse
Effective Parent Training
Reduction in Disruptive Behavior Disorders
Generally, not well-estimated—little attention has been given to the short-term service costs of: intake, court costs, placement/classroom moves, multi-disciplinary team staffing, and mental health services
Chaffin et al. found > $3,600 savings per family in reductions in costs for new child abuse investigations after re-abuse allegations
Begle, A. M., Dumas, J. E., & Hanson, R. F. (2010). Predicting child abuse potential: An empirical investigation of two theoretical frameworks. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39 (2), 208-219.
Boyle, C. L., Sanders, M. R., Lutzker, J. R., Prinz, R. J., Shapiro, C., & Whitaker, D. J. (2010). An analysis of training, generalization, and maintenance effects of Primary Care Triple P for parents of preschool-aged children with disruptive behavior. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 41(1), 114-131.
Chaffin M., Silovsky J.F., Funderburk B., Valle L.A., Brestan E.V., Balachova T., Jackson S., & Bonner B.L. (2004).
Parent-child interaction therapy with physically abusive parents: Efficacy for reducing future abuse reports.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72 (3), pp. 500-510.
Cohen, M.A. (1998). The monetary value of saving a high-risk youth. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 14, 5-33.
Corso, P. S., & Fertig, A. R. The economic impact of child maltreatment in the United States: Are the estimates credible? Child Abuse & Neglect, 34(5), 296-304.
de Graaf, I., Speetjens, P., Smit, F., de Wolff, M., & Tavecchio, L. (2009). Effectiveness of the Triple P Positive
Parenting Program on parenting: A meta-analysis. Family Relations, 57,553–566.
de Graaf, I., Speetjens, P., Smit, F., de Wolff, M., & Tavecchio, L. (2008). Effectiveness of the Triple P Positive Parenting Program on behavioral problems in children: A meta-analysis. Behavior Modification, 32(5), 714–735.
Embry, D. D., & Biglan, A. (2008). Evidence-based kernels: Fundamental units of behavioral influence. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 11(3), 75-113.
Foster, E. M., Prinz, R. J., Sanders, M. R., & Shapiro, C. J. (2008). The costs of a public health infrastructure for delivering parenting and family support. Children and Youth Services Review, 30(5), 493-501.
Foster, E. M. & Jones, D., (2006). Can a costly intervention be cost-effective? An analysis of violence prevention. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(11), 1284-1291.
Goldfine, M.E., Wagner, S.M., Branstetter, S.A., & Mcneil, C.B. (2008). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: An examination of cost-effectiveness. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, 5(1), 119-141.
Horwitz, S. M., Chamberlain, P., Landsverk, J., & Mullican, C. Improving the mental health of children in child welfare through the implementation of evidence-based parenting interventions. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 37(1-2), 27-39.
McCarthy, P. & Kerman, B. Inside the belly of the beast: How bad systems trump good programs. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 37(1-2), 167-172.
Mihalopoulos, C., Sanders, M. R., Turner, K. M. T., Murphy-Brennan, M., & Carter, R. (2007). Does the triple P-Positive Parenting Program provide value for money? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41(3), 239-246.
Nowak, C. & Heinrichs, N. (2008) A comprehensive meta-analysis of Triple P-Positive Parenting Program
using hierarchical linear modeling: Effectiveness and moderating variables. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 11, 114-144.
Prinz, R. J., Sanders, M. R., Shapiro, C. J., Whitaker, D. J., & Lutzker, J. R. (2009). Population-Based Prevention of Child Maltreatment: The US Triple P System Population Trial. Prevention Science, 10(1), 1-12.
Scott, S. National dissemination of effective parenting programmes to improve child outcomes. British Journal of Psychiatry, 196(1), 1-3.
Thomas, R., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2007). Behavioral outcomes of parent-child interaction therapy and triple p-positive parenting program: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(3), 475-495.
Ward, H. (2008). Costs and consequences of placing children in foster care. London: Jessica Kingsley.