Unit 5 modern era 1750 1914 dawn of industrialization chapter 23 and beyone
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Unit 5 Modern Era 1750 - 1914 Dawn of Industrialization Chapter 23 and beyone. Forces of Change. intellectual Enlightenment thinkers. challenge existing order gap b/t intellectuals & established institutions. merchants encourage economic & technological changes. stimulate expansion on

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Unit 5 modern era 1750 1914 dawn of industrialization chapter 23 and beyone

Unit 5 Modern Era 1750 - 1914 Dawn of IndustrializationChapter 23 and beyone


Forces of Change

intellectual

Enlightenment thinkers

challenge existing order

gap b/t intellectuals & established institutions

merchants encourage economic & technological changes

stimulate expansion on

manufacturing & consumerism

population pressure

- increase

youthful independence grew


Revolutions

call for change or restoration of past patterns

American

taxes

trade controls

restrict expansion

constitution based on Enlightenment principles

French

call for change – mid 1700s

- limitations on aristocracy & church

- increased voice for citizens

- middle-class want greater political role

- peasants want freedom from landlords


market economy

King cannot control

Declaration of Rights of Man & the Citizen

assembly abolishes manorialism

enact equality before the law

new parliament limits royal authority

church privileges attacked

reforms cause resistance & civil wars in some areas

economic chaos


revolution taken over by radical groups

- abolish monarchy

- Reign of Terror

universal male

suffrage

radical leadership falls in 1795

- moderates take over

Napoleon Bonaparte

- turns revolutionary republic into authoritarian

empire

- kept many of changes


focus more on foreign expansion

- 1812 control w. Europe except Britain

1815 empire ends

- revolutionary ideals survived

victorious allies = restore balance of power

France not peaceful internally

conservative victors – repress revolutionary ideas

liberals - limited state interference

radicals - extended voting rights

socialists – attack private property & capitalism

nationalists – stress national unity


political discussion center on constitution & political participation

revolutions (1820s & 30s)in:

Greece

Spain

Portugal

France

Italy

Germany

Belgium

secure more liberal rights & religious freedom


Industrial Revolution participation

begin in Britain

technological change

- coal powered engines to replace animal & human power

Enlightenment thinking = ideological base for change

origins 1770-1840

factories

interchangeable parts

coal & coke fuel

transportation & communication

improved agriculture

factory system


Disruptions of Industrial Life participation

movement of people

social changes to family

middle class redefines family life

work conditions end leisurely craft production

lower classes turned to governments to compensate for industrial changes

revolts follow – government unresponsive


social reform participation

equal rights

“revolutions of 1848”

spread through western Europe

want: liberal constitutions

limits on industrialization

end of manorialism

ethnic demands

generally failed

- thus gradual methods needed to be applied

aristocracy declines

- social structure based on wealth


middle class property owners vs. working class participation

old alliances that produced revolutions dissolved

revolutions in West become obsolete

industrial consolidation 1850-1914

rise of socialism

stable populations

children valued

material conditions improve

peasants improve lives

labor movements

adjustments to industrial life


Political Trends participation

cautious change

Britain – vote to working-class males 1867

Prussia – vote to all adult males

conservatives use nationalism to win support

united: Italy

Germany (1871)

key political issues reduced

most Western nations have parliamentary systems

- basic liberties protected

- political parties peacefully contest for office


New Government Functions participation

expand

civil service exams

school systems

welfare systems set up

government & citizen contact with each other

rise of socialism

- Karl Marx

revisionists support parliamentary

democracy to achieve goals


Cultural Change participation

feminist movements late 1800s

higher wages

increased leisure time

- pleasure part of life

mass leisure culture

- rise of team sports

- growing secularism

consumption encouraged (factory capacity)

advances

in scientific knowledge

- continues tradition of rationalism

- Darwin, Einstein, Freud


Artistic Expression participation

romanticism vs rationalism

African & East Asian influences

Western culture doesn’t synthesize

Expansion of West’s power

new markets & raw material needed

  • transportation & communication

  • Europeans & superior weapons help

  • spread empires

  • - immigration

http://www.uwec.edu/geogrApHy/Ivogeler/w111/world-europeanization-animated.gif


U.S. - growing power participation

Civil War – 1st modern war

- industrially produced weapons

- accelerates industrialization

- new technology

British settler colonies

Canada, Australia, New Zealand

parliamentary governments, European culture

dependent on Great Britain economically


20 participationth century

balance of power altered by Germany’s rise

overseas expansion by European countries

imperial rivalries add to tension in Europe

Triple Alliance

Germany

Austria-Hungary

Italy

Triple Entente

Britain

France

Russia

1 unstable partner in each

all lead into WWI


1. Contrast & compare the causes of the American & French Revolutions.

2. What were the lasting reforms of the French Revolution?

3. What new political movements emerged in the aftermath of the French Revolution?

4. What changes led to industrialization?

5. What changes in social organization did industrialization cause?

6. How were industrialization & revolution linked?

7. How did government functions increase in response to the “social question”?

8. How did science & the arts diverge in the period after 1850?

9. Discuss the influence of the revolutions beginning in 1820 and extending through 1870 in reconstructing the map of Europe, and how the reconstruction affected the development of European diplomacy by 1907.

10. Discuss how the Industrial Revolution changed the social structure and political alignment of the West.


Contrast compare the causes of the american french revolutions

AMERICAN Revolutions.

war for independence

taxes

no taxation without representation

trade controls

restrictions on movement in frontier areas

FRENCH

limitations on aristocracy & church

increased voice for citizens

middle class want greater political role

peasants want freedom from landlords

Contrast & compare the causes of the American & French Revolutions.


What were the lasting reforms of the french revolution
What were the lasting reforms of the French Revolution? Revolutions.

  • metric system

  • universal male suffrage

  • religious freedom

  • substantial equality for men

  • new law codes

  • centralized system of secondary schools & universities

  • new constitution


What new political movements emerged in the aftermath of the french revolution
What new political movements emerged in the aftermath of the French Revolution?

  • conservative –repress revolutionary ideas

  • liberals – limited state interference

  • radicals – extended voting rights

  • socialists – attack private property & capitalism

  • nationalists – stress national unity


What changes led to industrialization
What changes led to industrialization? French Revolution?

  • automatic machinery in textiles industry

  • steam engine

  • recurrent technological change

  • inventions

  • interchangeable parts

  • use of coal & coke

  • improvements in agriculture

  • improvements in transportation & communication


What changes in social organization did industrialization cause
What changes in social organization did industrialization cause?

  • movement of people to cities

  • young adults moving from families

  • cities crowded, dirty, crime

  • new social divisions – middle class move away from cities

  • work separate from family

  • work unpleasant, fast, monotonous

  • factory work stressful

  • popular leisure changes

  • middleclass family – wife stay home with children, husband goes to work

  • women’s sphere separate

  • women & children sheltered from work world

  • education now important for children


How were industrialization revolution linked
How were industrialization & revolution linked? cause?

  • government functions shifted

  • build railroads

  • promote science & engineering

  • encourage education

  • sewer systems

  • political protest compensated for industrial change (Chartist movement)

  • artisans want industry regulated

  • social demands because of changes brought by industrialization


How did government functions increase in response to the social question
How did government functions increase in response to the “social question”?

  • civil service exams

  • regulations – safety, health, personal travel,

  • schooling expands (compulsory to age 12)

  • expand public secondary schools

  • wider welfare measures

  • measures to aid unemployment


How did science the arts diverge in the period after 1850

SCIENCE “social question”?

rationalist tradition

apply science to practical affairs

link science & technology

combine science & medicine

Darwin’s theory

physics

Einstein – theory of relativity

Freud – human subconscious

ART

Dickens – realistic portrayals of human problems

some painters build on discoveries of science

romanticism – emotion & impression (not reason & generalization) were keys to human experience

portray passions

empathy with nature

try to violate traditional Western standards

abstract, atonal

How did science & the arts diverge in the period after 1850?


Discuss the influence of the revolutions beginning in 1820 and extending through 1870 in reconstructing the map of Europe, and how the reconstruction affected the development of European diplomacy by 1907.

  • revolutions created new states

  • greatest impact in eastern & central Europe

  • emergence of new states accompanied by economic growth

  • Germany an economic threat to Britain

  • Germany & Italy want colonies, be a part of world empires

  • economic & colonial competition upset balance of power

  • Triple Alliance & Triple Entente.


Discuss how the Industrial Revolution changed the social structure and political alignment of the West.

  • pre-industrialization, social order based on peasantry, aristocracy & the church

  • post – industrialization, aristocracy & church lose power

  • social status based on wealth

  • liberals sought political power that went with economic power of middle class (limited, constitutional government)

  • radicals & socialists want power extended to working class, extension of voting rights

  • all manipulated by conservative politicians often through nationalism.


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