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22. Microbial Diseases of the Nervous System. 1924 funeral of Oregon family wiped out by botulism. Figure 22.7. Botulism. Clostridium botulinum Gram-positive, endospore-forming, obligate anaerobe Intoxication comes from ingesting botulinal toxin .

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22

Microbial Diseases of the Nervous System



Botulism
Botulism

  • Clostridium botulinum

  • Gram-positive, endospore-forming, obligate anaerobe

  • Intoxication comes from ingesting botulinal toxin.

    • Botulinal toxin blocks release of neurotransmitter causing flaccid paralysis.

  • Prevention

    • Proper canning

    • Nitrites prevent endospore germination in sausages.


Botulism1
Botulism

  • Treatment: Supportive care and antitoxin.

  • Infant botulism results from C. botulinum growing in intestines.

  • Wound botulism results from growth of C. botulinumin wounds.


Diagnosis
Diagnosis

Figure 22.8


Leprosy
Leprosy

  • Mycobacterium leprae

  • Acid-fast rod that grows best at 30°C.

  • Grows in peripheral nerves and skin cells.

  • Tuberculoid (neural) form: Loss of sensation in skin areas

  • Lepromatous (progressive) form: Disfiguring nodules over body


Leprosy1
Leprosy

Figure 22.9


Poliomyelitis
Poliomyelitis

  • Poliovirus

  • Transmitted by ingestion.

  • Initial symptoms: Sore throat and nausea

  • If persistent, virus can enter the CNS

    • destruction of motor cells and paralysis occurs in <1% of cases.

  • Prevention is by vaccination



Poliomyelitis1
Poliomyelitis

Figure 22.11


Rabies virus rhabdovirus
Rabies Virus (Rhabdovirus)

  • Transmitted by animal bite.

  • Virus multiplies in skeletal muscles, then brain cells causing encephalitis.

  • Initial symptoms

    • muscle spasms of the mouth and pharynx

    • hydrophobia

  • Furious rabies: Animals are restless then highly excitable.

  • Paralytic rabies: Animals seem unaware of surroundings.





Arboviral encephalitis
Arboviral Encephalitis

  • Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses that belong to several families.

  • Prevention is by controlling mosquitoes.

Figure 22.14




Naegleria fowleri
Naegleria fowleri

  • Protozoan infects nasal mucosa from swimming water.

Figure 22.17



Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

  • Caused by prions

    • Sheep scrapie

    • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    • Kuru (New Guinea)

    • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (Mad Cow)

  • Transmitted by ingestion or transplant or inherited.

  • Chronic and fatal




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