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Microbial Diseases of the Nervous System PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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22. Microbial Diseases of the Nervous System. 1924 funeral of Oregon family wiped out by botulism. Figure 22.7. Botulism. Clostridium botulinum Gram-positive, endospore-forming, obligate anaerobe Intoxication comes from ingesting botulinal toxin .

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Microbial Diseases of the Nervous System

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Microbial diseases of the nervous system

22

Microbial Diseases of the Nervous System


Microbial diseases of the nervous system

1924 funeral of Oregon family wiped out by botulism

Figure 22.7


Botulism

Botulism

  • Clostridium botulinum

  • Gram-positive, endospore-forming, obligate anaerobe

  • Intoxication comes from ingesting botulinal toxin.

    • Botulinal toxin blocks release of neurotransmitter causing flaccid paralysis.

  • Prevention

    • Proper canning

    • Nitrites prevent endospore germination in sausages.


Botulism1

Botulism

  • Treatment: Supportive care and antitoxin.

  • Infant botulism results from C. botulinum growing in intestines.

  • Wound botulism results from growth of C. botulinumin wounds.


Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Figure 22.8


Leprosy

Leprosy

  • Mycobacterium leprae

  • Acid-fast rod that grows best at 30°C.

  • Grows in peripheral nerves and skin cells.

  • Tuberculoid (neural) form: Loss of sensation in skin areas

  • Lepromatous (progressive) form: Disfiguring nodules over body


Leprosy1

Leprosy

Figure 22.9


Poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis

  • Poliovirus

  • Transmitted by ingestion.

  • Initial symptoms: Sore throat and nausea

  • If persistent, virus can enter the CNS

    • destruction of motor cells and paralysis occurs in <1% of cases.

  • Prevention is by vaccination


Microbial diseases of the nervous system

Figure 22.10


Poliomyelitis1

Poliomyelitis

Figure 22.11


Rabies virus rhabdovirus

Rabies Virus (Rhabdovirus)

  • Transmitted by animal bite.

  • Virus multiplies in skeletal muscles, then brain cells causing encephalitis.

  • Initial symptoms

    • muscle spasms of the mouth and pharynx

    • hydrophobia

  • Furious rabies: Animals are restless then highly excitable.

  • Paralytic rabies: Animals seem unaware of surroundings.


Rabies virus in wild

Rabies Virus in Wild


Rabies virus rhabdovirus1

Rabies Virus (Rhabdovirus)

Figure 22.12


Rabies virus rhabdovirus2

Rabies Virus (Rhabdovirus)

Figure 22.13


Arboviral encephalitis

Arboviral Encephalitis

  • Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses that belong to several families.

  • Prevention is by controlling mosquitoes.

Figure 22.14


Microbial diseases of the nervous system

UN 22.2


Arboviral encephalitis1

Arboviral Encephalitis


Naegleria fowleri

Naegleria fowleri

  • Protozoan infects nasal mucosa from swimming water.

Figure 22.17


Naegleria fowleri1

Naegleria fowleri


Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

  • Caused by prions

    • Sheep scrapie

    • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    • Kuru (New Guinea)

    • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (Mad Cow)

  • Transmitted by ingestion or transplant or inherited.

  • Chronic and fatal


Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies1

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

Figure 22.18


Microbial diseases of the nervous system

Figure 22.19 - Overview


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