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Welcome to ENVR 242. Vertebrate Biology & Ecology. Instructor: Annette Dehalt PPT Presentations: Ted Davis & Annette Dehalt. Biological Diversity. What is “biodiversity”? The value of biodiversity The loss of biodiversity B.C. Biodiversity Threats to Biodiversity.

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Welcome to ENVR 242

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Welcome to ENVR 242

Vertebrate Biology & Ecology

Instructor: Annette Dehalt

PPT Presentations: Ted Davis & Annette Dehalt


Biological Diversity

What is “biodiversity”?

The value of biodiversity

The loss of biodiversity

B.C. Biodiversity

Threats to Biodiversity


Biodiversity (biological diversity)

“…the totality of hereditary variation in life forms, across all levels of biological organization, from genes and chromosomes within individual species to the array of species themselves and finally, at the highest level, the living communities of ecosystems such as forests and lakes.” – E. O. Wilson (1994:359)


Biodiversity is NOT just

species diversity!

Species diversity is NOT just number of species!

  • Species diversity =

  • Species richness + relative abundance

  • Species richness = number of species

  • Relative abundance = proportion of each species in the community


Three levels of biodiversity


Coastal Ecosystem Diversity

Mountains

Forest

Ocean


Diverse components of biodiversity (genes…ecosystems) are structurally and functionally integrated in various ways, providing additional levels of diversity and complexity:


How the parts are organized

The parts

How the parts function


Biodiversity

What is “biodiversity”?

The value of biodiversity

The loss of biodiversity

B.C. Biodiversity

Threats to Biodiversity


Value of biodiversity

Intrinsic value – value in and of itself without regard for human needs.


Value of biodiversity

Intrinsic value – value in and of itself without regard for human needs.

Direct value – products directly consumed by people.


Value of biodiversity

Intrinsic value – value in and of itself without regard for human needs.

Direct value – products directly consumed by people.

Indirect value – benefits that do not involve the consumption of resources.


Indirect value: recreation and education


Indirect value: ecosystem services


Ecosystem services:

The conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems sustain life, including human life.


Ecosystem services

  • production of ecosystem goods

  • purification of air and water

  • mitigation of floods and droughts

  • decomposition of wastes

  • renewal of soil and soil fertility

  • crop pollination

  • control of agricultural pests

  • seed dispersal

  • nutrient transport

  • climate stabilization


Ecosystem services

Global GNP = $18 trillion

Ecosystem services: $33 trillion/year


Catskill watershed

$6-$8 billion for a new water treatment plant


Catskill watershed

$1.5 billion to buy land and introduce water protection measures


Biodiversity

What is “biodiversity”?

The value of biodiversity

The loss of biodiversity

B.C. Biodiversity

Threats to Biodiversity


The loss of biodiversity

  • The current loss of biodiversity is unprecedented.

Because of human activities, extinction rates are 100X – 1000X greater than the background extinction rate.


Percent of Described Species Globally Threatened (IUCN 2011)

Fishes insuff. data

Amphibians41%

Reptiles insuff. data

Birds13%

Mammals25%

Vertebrates ~10-20%


The loss of biodiversity

  • The current loss of biodiversity is unprecedented.

  • The threats to biodiversity are driven by the growth and size of the human population, the technologies we use, and the amount of natural resources we consume.

Human population growth


The loss of biodiversity

  • The current loss of biodiversity is unprecedented.

  • The threats to biodiversity are driven by the growth and size of the human population, the technologies we use, and the amount of natural resources we consume.

  • Many of the threats to biodiversity are synergistic.

  • 4. What is bad for biodiversity is bad for humans.


Biodiversity

What is “biodiversity”?

The value of biodiversity

The loss of biodiversity

B.C. Biodiversity

Threats to Biodiversity


BC Biodiversity

The most biologically diverse province or territory in Canada


BC Biodiversity

3169 native vascular plants

781 species of mosses

~1600 species of lichens

~520 species of sea weeds

~10,000 species of fungi

~35,000 species of Invertebrates (mostly insects)


BC Biodiversity

1257 species of vertebrates

504 species of fish

22 species of amphibians

22 species of reptiles

529 species of birds

180 species of mammals


BC Biodiversity (2011)


Taxonomy

corn

  • Common names

  • Not standardized

  • Don’t indicate relationships

bear

robin


Scientific names

Canis lupus

(Grey Wolf)

Peromyscus maniculatus

(Deer Mouse)


Scientific names

Canis lupus (Grey Wolf)

Canis latrans

(Coyote)

Canis mesomelas

(Black-backed Jackal)

Canis dingo (Dingo)


Alces alces (Moose)


Scientific names

Canis lupus

Canis Lupus

Grey wolf

canis lupus

Canis lupus


Panthera

pardus

Species

Panthera

Genus

Felidae

Family

Carnivora

Order

Mammalia

Class

Chordata

Phylum

Animalia

Kingdom

Eukarya

Domain

Hierarchical classification


ZOOLOGICAL BOTANICAL

Kingdom Kingdom

Phylum Division (-phyta)

Subphylum Subdivision (-phytina)

Superclass

Class Class (-opsida)

Subclass Subclass (-idae)

Order Order (-ales)

Suborder Suborder (-ineae)

Superfamily (-oidea)

Family (-idae) Family (-aceae)

Subfamily (-inae) Subfamily (-oideae) Tribe (-eae)

Genus Genus

species species


ENVR 242 Taxonomy

Phylum Chordata

Subphylum Urochordata (tunicates)

(Subphylum Cephalochordata-lancelets: 0 in BC)

Subphylum Vertebrata

Superclass Agnatha – jawless fishes

Class Myxini (hagfish)

Class Petromyzontida (lampreys)

Superclass Gnathostomata – jawed vert’s

Class Chondrichthyes - cartilagenous fishes

Class Actinopterygii – ray-finned fishes

(Class Sarcopterygii – lobe-finned fishes: 0 in BC)

Class Amphibia - amphibians

Class Reptilia - reptiles

Class Aves - birds

Class Mammalia – mammals


Biodiversity

What is “biodiversity”?

The value of biodiversity

The loss of biodiversity

B.C. Biodiversity

Threats to Biodiversity


Threats to biodiversity

  • Climate change

  • Habitat destruction

  • Habitat fragmentation

  • Habitat degradation

  • Overexploitation

  • Introduction of exotic species

  • Disease

  • (details to follow)


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