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Relevant Terms. (derived from pre-AP exam). Endorse Derives Emphasize Perceives Analyze Evaluate Interpret Intent Diction Intuitive Integrate . Infer/inferences Reference Characterize Annotate Syntax.

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Relevant terms

Relevant Terms

(derived from pre-AP exam)


  • Endorse

  • Derives

  • Emphasize

  • Perceives

  • Analyze

  • Evaluate

  • Interpret

  • Intent

  • Diction

  • Intuitive

  • Integrate

  • Infer/inferences

  • Reference

  • Characterize

  • Annotate

  • Syntax


  • Prose: non-poetic language, ordinary language used in speaking or writing (Is this written in verse or prose?)

  • Context: the interrelated conditions in which something exists or occurs (What is the context of this word?)

  • Convey: communicate (What does this passage convey?)

  • Summarize: recapitulate (recap) the main points (Summarize the poem)

  • Paraphrase: restating or rewording the text for clarification purposes (Paraphrase the speech)

  • Conventional: what is generally accepted/believed, conservative (conventional policies)

  • Idiosyncratic: peculiarity (Her habit of using “like” in every sentence was just one of her idiosyncrasies.)


  • Sentiments: an attitude/opinion prompted by feeling, emotion speaking or writing (Is this written in verse or prose?)

    (You have to be tough to succeed in the business world. There's no room for sentiment.)

  • Attitude: an organismic state of readiness to respond in a characteristic way to a stimulus (The author’s tone shows her attitude toward the subject.)

  • Antithesis: contrast of ideas, opposite (true love for another is the antithesis of the desire to control that person's life)

  • Euphemism: substitution of an agreeable/inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant (using “release” as a euphemism for “kill”

  • Rhetoric/rhetorical : the art of speaking or writing effectively, used for effect to make a point (rhetorical question, cheap rhetoric, the mayor's promise to fight drugs was just rhetoric, since there was no money in the city budget for a drug program)


Learning by creating
Learning by creating speaking or writing (Is this written in verse or prose?)

  • Choose four of the terms and formulate four detailed questions/tasks (2 for each work) based off the works we’ve read so far in class. You must choose one short story and one poem.

    • “Through the Tunnel” pg. 242

    • “Hearts and Hands” pg. 290

    • “Like the Sun” pg. 280

    • “A Problem” pg. 596

    • “The Fish” p. 293

    • “Tell all the Truth but tell it slant” pg. 284

      NO ONE USES MY EXAMPLE

      Example: The speaker in the poem, “The Fish,” resolves to let the fish go. Was this the fishermen’s intent from the beginning? Draw inferences from the text to support your claim.


Literary analysis sift method
Literary Analysis—SIFT Method speaking or writing (Is this written in verse or prose?)

Symbols: Examine the title and text for symbolism

Images: Identify images and sensory details

Figures of Speech: Analyze figurative language and other devices

Tone and Theme: How do these devices reveal tone and theme?

Use this method as you’re reading in order to facilitate discussion.


Discussion roles
Discussion Roles speaking or writing (Is this written in verse or prose?)

  • Leader

    The leader gets the discussion going. The leader assures that everyone in the group participates. The leader must be intuitive and realize when it’s time to move on in the discussion and introduce a new topic or question.

    What are qualities of an effective leader?


Discussion roles1
Discussion Roles speaking or writing (Is this written in verse or prose?)

  • Recorder

    • This person affirms that everyone in the group did in fact participate. This person produces an account of what was accomplished—what interesting points were discussed, what questions were raised, ect.

    • The recorder is the only one in the group who has the OPTION to participate or not. The recorder can assume the role of observer, or the recorder may choose to comment.


Discussion roles2
Discussion Roles speaking or writing (Is this written in verse or prose?)

  • Vocab Master

    • Need I say more?

    • This person may use appropriate resources (iPod, dictionary) to define ambiguous or debated terms.

    • The vocab master decides whether to introduce these terms at the beginning of the discussion or during discussion.


Discussion roles3
Discussion Roles speaking or writing (Is this written in verse or prose?)

  • SIFTers

    • SIFTer 1 observes the symbols and imagery in the literary work. What is the purpose of these symbols and images? What do they mean?

    • SIFTer 2 focuses on figures of speech, tone, and themes. Are there multiple themes? Are they interrelated? What are the two opposite sides to this story?


Expectations for all
Expectations for ALL speaking or writing (Is this written in verse or prose?)

  • While reading, EVERYONE jots down questions and observations that come to mind.

  • I firmly believe you are all learned, so engage in intelligent discussion.

  • The discussion circles are an alternative to independent work in which you read a story and answer questions. Please demonstrate that you are capable of effectively participating in literature circles.


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