Mh 11 year of desperation 1917
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 40

MH-11: Year of Desperation 1917 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 55 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

MH-11: Year of Desperation 1917. 1917- Year of Desperation & Anticipation Strategic Overview. 1917 was a critical year for both sides: Central powers – great domestic unrest & discontent: Food shortages => health problems escalate; Allies – French Army unraveling:

Download Presentation

MH-11: Year of Desperation 1917

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Mh 11 year of desperation 1917

MH-11: Year of Desperation 1917


1917 year of desperation anticipation strategic overview

1917- Year of Desperation & AnticipationStrategic Overview

  • 1917 was a critical year for both sides:

    • Central powers – great domestic unrest & discontent:

      • Food shortages => health problems escalate;

    • Allies – French Army unraveling:

      • 1917 Neville Offensive & its negative impact;

      • Morale plummets & mutinies soar;

  • Great Britain (Haig)assumes greater role as result:

    • 3rd Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele –Sum/Fall 1917)

      • High casualties to little effect


Strategic overview the eastern front

Strategic Overview- The Eastern Front

  • Russia suffered even worse:

    • High losses & incompetent generalship;

  • Deprivation => domestic unrest => Revolution:

    • Spontaneous uprising in Petrograd only beginning;

    • Tsar advocates & soon Provisional Gov. fails;

    • Bolsheviks take over & make separate peace:

    • Breste Litovsk - Impact on allies?

  • West must now face more German troops – why?

  • Tactical, Operational, & Strategic situation is?_____________________ -Why?*


Tactical operational strategic situation western front

Tactical, Operational, & Strategic SituationWestern Front

  • 1917 offensives& tactical assaults all mostly ?______________:

    • Horrendous casualties for very little gain

    • Allies must now face German’s without Russian Front:

    • German Army now can concentrate forces on West- and they do!


Tactical limitations realized

Tactical Limitations Realized

  • Impact: Tactical reality of the war finally realized:

    • Sweeping breakthrough now considered too costly & impractical

    • More finite & limited tactical objectives are identified instead

    • Also prompted determined search for tactical innovation

    • Artillery objectives are now map surveyed (w/o long prep- why?)

      • Preserve tactical ?______________

    • Better combined ground, arty, armor, & air coordination:

      • i.e. British Tank operations in Cambrai Offensive

      • Air recon & CAS now played akey role supporting attacks

  • Allies will end 1917 barely holding on until US arrives:

    • What prompts the Americans to enter the war?


Submarine warfare

?______________ Submarine Warfare

  • May 1915-Lusitania sunk:

    • Over 100 Americans lost

    • American reaction => temporary suspension of GermanSS ops

  • German military position?

    • Impact anticipated by German Army on British resolve?

    • ?____________ miscalculation – (But operational success)

      • British “stiff upper lip”

      • US re-supply to Britain

      • Negative attitude twd Germany

  • Why did Germany resume unrestricted SS warfare?


British blockade of germany its impact

British Blockade of Germany & Its Impact

  • British blockade’s impact on Germany was significant:

    • Food & military material running very low

  • Rising pressure on German leadership to act decisively:

    • High causalities suffered at Verdun, Somme, Brusilov offensive

    • Result: stalemate no longer option- something + had to be done

  • Hindenburg’s & Ludendorffplayed key role on SSrestart

    • Kaiser’s decision based in part on poor intelligence analysis:

      • i.e.MOE: 600K tons/month sunk => surrender in 5 months

      • Was above operationalMOEmet?

  • Britain’s response to German SS sinking of Brit shipping?

  • Impact on American attitude toward Germany & war?

  • What additional issue further inflamed US feelings?

    • ?______________ telegram

  • Tactical SS success => Op. letdown=> strategic disaster


Allied offensives of 1917 command

Allied Offensives of 1917- Command

  • Leadership changes of late 1916:

    • LloydGeorgebecomes British Prime Minister

    • Gen Haig replaces FM French

    • Gen Nivelle replaces FMJoffreat Western Front

  • Most obvious but difficult problem for allies to solve:

    • Lack of unified command & control:

    • Strong British military resistance (Haig)

    • Current situation: only loose operational coordination between the allies


Allied offensives of 1917 coordination

Allied Offensives of 1917- Coordination

  • Lloyd George’s role in resolving lack of unified Command?

    • Haig overruled & BEF placed at ?______________disposal

  • Result: Haig & Nivelle agree on plan for French breakthrough:

    • French Objective:

    • Chemin des Dames(Map)

  • BEF’s key support role?

    • Take Arras

  • Operational Purpose & objective?

    • Fix German ?_________ __________ in North

    • Allow French to attack without being pushed back by strategic ?__________


Allied offensives of 1917 haig s plan

Allied Offensives of 1917- Haig’s Plan

  • Haig’s follow-on plans following diversion for Nivelle?

    • High ground at ?______________ Ridge(Just south of Ypres)

  • Must be executed within tight timeframe – why?

    • Above only prelude to what Battle?

      • 3rd Battle of ?___________

  • What is Haig’s main Operational objective?*


Operational strategic objectives

Operational & Strategic Objectives

  • Haig’s Operational & Strategic Objectives:

    • Operational: German?_____ pensat Ostend & Zeebrugge

    • Strategic aim: Eliminate ?____ threat to British Merchant Ships


British operational strategy tactical objectives

British Operational Strategy & Tactical Objectives

  • Operational Strategy?

    • Conduct series of attacks in sequence along the ?____ front

    • Drive German RF back along Belgium coast

    • Capture ?_______ bases & end threat to Allied shipping;

  • Tactical Objectives:

    • Sequential attacks on:

    • Arras, Heights of Chemin des Dames, Messiness' Ridge, &

    • Then finally –Ypres (for 3rd time)


German response preparations

German Response & preparations

  • In anticipation of Allied 1917 offensive:

    • Germans retire to Hindenburg Line(Map) – why?

      • (Impact of shorter ?_______s on available reserves?)

  • Force deployment & tactical preparations:

    • Reverse slope & elastic defense (?):

      • Fewer forward w/mutual mg/arty support points throughout

      • Shorten defense lines- impact?

    • Better able to ?______-________ to pre-emptallied attempt to reinforce initial gains

  • First Battle of campaign begins at Arrason 9 April’17:

    • What happens?


Arras april 1917

Arras (April 1917)

  • Brits commence assault following 5 days of arty prep:

    • 1st & 3rd Army gain initial tactical objective as planned:

    • Canadian Corps heroically re-captured Vimy Ridge

      • (major tactical success)

    • Brit 3rd Cavalryunable to exploit & consolidate gains:

      • Make several repeated attacks without success;

  • NTL – Arras is considered an operational success – why?

    • Impact of attack on German strategic reserves in NW?

      • ?___________ as planned

    • Effect on French effort to South?


Nivelle offensive of 1917

Nivelle Offensive of 1917

  • Nivelle’s recent success & reputation as innovative artillery officer:

    • “Invented” Rolling barrage& tightly controlled inf. advances;

    • Instrumental in recapture of Fort Douaumontat Verdun;

    • Douaumont advance supported by heavy arty to infantry’s front

  • Dec 1916–Nivelleassigned as commander of NW Front:

    • Starts immediate plans for breakthrough at Champagne:

  • Plans & Preparations:

    • Tactical objective: heights at Chemin des Dames;

    • Develops detailed plans with extensive time consuming arty prep

    • What is the major problem that emerges with French delay?


German response preparations1

German Response & preparations

  • Nivelle’s delay & poor OPSEC results in:

    • Loss of ?_________________and soon tactical ?___________!

    • Enables Germans to reorganize ?_______________ positions

  • Key German Changes in response:

    • Elastic defense – minimum # of troops forward

    • Reverse slope – German infantry at Chemin des Dames

    • Reinforced concentration at expected assault sector

      • Especially the Second Belt Trench line

  • Nivelle’s pre-execution failures:

    • Ignores intelligence indications of lost surprise

    • Ignores indications of German troop repositioning to Fr objectives

    • Overconfident of artillery’s impact for expected breakthrough


Nivelle s plan great expectations

Nivelle’s Plan- “Great Expectations”

  • Incorporated 4 armies:

    • 10th Army was to follow & exploit the gap made by the 6th & 5th Armies

    • Nivelle expected 10th Army to advance 15 miles by D+2

  • Note: as a general rule…

    • Plans rarely survive the first shot

      • (Especially if you have poor OPSEC & the enemy has a copy of your plan)

    • Plans with unrealistic assumptionssuffer even more

  • How does Nivelle prepare for the assault’s actual execution?

    • 7 April: 9 days of ?_________________ preparation


Nivelle offensive execution

Nivelle Offensive- Execution

  • 16 April:1st wave advances –

    • Able to reach initial tactical objectives- why?

      • ?____ _______ ______in first belt- Why?

      • ?______________ defense

  • French reach geographic crest of their objective-

    • then what happens?

  • Germans concentrate ?________on troops

    • German preparations halt further Fr advance

      • Germans were not visible initially – why?

      • Withdrew to?____________ slope positions

  • German defense in depthhalts advance:

    • 3 days of failed attacks follow-

      • All preceded by arty

    • Heavy allied casualties result;

  • Nivellethen modifies plan:

    • Orders 5th to attack NE & 4th to attack NW:

    • Result?


Nivelle offensive results

Nivelle Offensive- Results

  • Dismal failure at extremely high costs:

    • Tactical losses: 117K casualties (32K KIA);

    • Operational failure –

      • No change in tactical or operational situation at high cost

    • What is the Strategic Impact?

  • Strategic Impact ofNivelle Offensive’s failure:

    • Severe disappointment & despair (unfulfilled expectations)

    • French army begins to unravel – bad morale

      • Many French Units mutiny & refuse to return to the front

    • Nivellerelieved in disgrace by?______________

  • What is ?__________’s main objective now?


Petain s main strategic objective

Petain’s main strategic objective

  • Stop mutinies & restore discipline & morale;

    • Finally able to restore confidence & morale in Army;

    • August: launches limited offensive with limited objectives

    • Conducts successful limited offensives at Verdun

  • Late Oct: Petain conducts offensive w/10th Army:

    • Tactical objective: Chemen des Dames;

    • Support: 14 tank companies & 1850 arty prep field for 3 days

    • Execution: Outflanks Germans & forces them to withdraw

    • Operational Result: No breakthrough – static front remains

  • Political fall out of Nivelle’s failed offensive:

    • Clemenceau takes firmer civilian control:

      • “War too important to be left to generals.”

      • Civilian leadership asserted & top down guidance on rise


3rd battle of ypres

3rd Battle of Ypres

  • Another result of Nivelle Offensives failure

    • British (under whose command?) assumed greater role on Western Front

    • Factor in decision to conduct 3rd Battle of Ypres

      • Also known to British as?

    • ?____________________:

  • Haig’s Strategic Objective:

    • Stop British ?_____ _______losses to German ?____

  • Operational Objective:

    • Capture German ?___ bases at Ostend & Zeebrugge;

  • Tactical Objective:

    • ?_____________________ (Map p. 332)

    • 1st stage: break through German defenses on German LF

    • Where?


Messiness ridge execution

Messiness' Ridge- Execution

  • Haig opens limited offensive on Messiness' Ridge:

    • Ridge dominated Ypres area from south

      • Therefore needed to be neutralized

    • Brits load 600 tons HE in tunnels dug under the ridge holding entrenched Germans

  • Assault:

    • 7 Jun: synchronized detonation after 17 day arty prep (all but 2 of 21 go off)

    • 10K Germans die in the explosion

    • Then 9 infantry divisions of General Plumer’s2nd Army advance to most planned tactical objectives-

    • Plumer urged Haig to exploit breakthrough

    • Haig stuck to his plan and prepared for next tactical objective to NE… which is…?

    • ?___________________


Passchendaele

Passchendaele

  • Battle Field preparation:

    • Conducts 2 week arty bombardment:

      • 3000 guns fire 65K Tons of arty shells

      • Little impact on German defense in depth

        • Few German Troops forward to impact

  • Attack- “Over the top”

    • 31 July: Brits capture initial objectives:

    • Next prep for main tactical objective:

      • Passchendaele

  • Friction & complications:

    • Heavy rain => mud=> shell holes=> delay:

    • Brits suspend assault to lay planks for advance

  • Brits resume operations:

    • 16 Aug: attack resumed w/little fwd progress

    • Series of limited attacks launched:

      • 20, 26 Sept & 4 Oct

  • How do Germans respond ?

    • Germans use ?__________ ________


German response british reply

German Response & British Reply

  • German Response:

    • Germans also useElastic defenseto great effect at assault’s start

      • Elastic defenseinitially used then Germans revert to earlier tactics

      • Army HQ sends more troops forward to front tocounter-attack

  • British response:

    • Conduct massive artillery barrages against German counter-attack

    • Effect close coordination with Aircraft, infantry, & artillery

    • Bombardment seriously disrupts German counter-attacks

    • High casualties on both sides

  • 6 Nov: 2 British divisions finally occupy Passchendaele:

    • Able to expand hold by 10 Nov – then Haigcalls halt to offensive

  • Results & significance?

    • At a cost of 240K casualties, what was actually gained ?

    • What about the Strategic & Operational Objectives?

    • Haig is criticized for not stopping offensive much earlier

      • Many think he should have waited arrival of whom?


American expeditionary force aef

American Expeditionary Force (AEF)

  • AEF iscommanded by whom?

    • General John ?______________

  • US inherent advantages?

    • ?______________ (100M), $$$ & industry, & ?___________

  • Disadvantages:

    • Small army (time to mobilize combat ready troops):

      • Must grow from 217K to 3.68M by wars end

      • Must recruit, equip, train, & transport to France

      • Transportation, logistics, & weapons shortfalls

  • Therefore, main challenge for US to participate in war?

    • ?________________________


Aef main challenge mobilization

AEF Main Challenge: Mobilization

  • Mobilize 2 million men & transport them to France:

    • Clothes, train, equip, & train (coveralls & sticks)

  • Establish required mobilization boards & commissions:

    • War Industries Board

    • Food & Fuel Administrations

    • Rail Administration & Shipping Board

    • Purpose of above boards & commissions?

      • Effectively manage all of the above

  • How well did they do?


Mobilization weapons equipment

Mobilization- Weapons & Equipment

  • Heavy weapons: machine guns, mortars, aircraft

    • Manufacture and provided by whom?

    • ?______________ & ?______________

  • Combat loaded logistics support & distribution:

    • Major inefficiencies and screw ups- examples: spittoons arrive early

  • Transportation shortfalls & major losses fromSS attacks

    • Half of AEF deployed to Europe via British merchants


Amalgamation

Amalgamation

  • Once AEF arrived, how did allies want to use them

    • Assigned to more experienced Brit & Fr veteran units- Why?

    • Desperately needed ?______________ at the front ASAP!

  • Pershing’s response & objectives: ?________!

    • American troops should maintain ?__________ cohesion under ?_____ commanders & fight as a unit (still maintained that way)

  • Lloyd George’s diplomatic pressure on Wilson - Result?

    • 4 ?_______ _______ regiments sent to French for WWI’s duration

  • What area of NW front did Pershing deploy to?

    • Why? (strategic significance & logistic advantage?)*


Aef combat deployment employment

AEF Combat Deployment & Employment

  • AEF disposition:

    • ?____________near St. Mihiel salient

  • Strategic significance:

    • German rail LOCthru Metz for Front’s re-supply

    • Potential offered for capture of iron & coal mines;

  • Logistic advantage:

    • More direct logistics & re-supply route for AEF

    • Avoided ports used by Brits & Paris bottlenecks

  • Main focus of AEF until German Offensive of 1918?

  • US innovation to support troops?

    • Service to supply system

    • 670K troops for everything but shoot

?___________!


Aef air service

AEF Air Service

  • Who does Pershing appoint to command AEF air service?

  • What was ?_____________’s major challenge?

    • US had 55 obsolete A/C to start with – so required to use whose A/C?

    • Also American pilots 3 years behind Europe in combat air experience

  • Main problem hindering Air Service’s full potential?

    • Shortages & lack of priority ?_____________, & ?_____________

    • Who gets top priority? ?_____________

  • Finally - 1st Air Squadron formed April 1918:

    • What was the 1st Air Squadron’sprimary Mission & capability & why?

  • 1st Air Squadron’s primary mission & capability:

    • ?_____________ & ?_____ to ?______ combat – (not strategic bombing)

    • Reason:

      • Low priority => slow progress & limited assets

      • (650 A/C at peak)

      • Nonetheless – Mitchell would exploit to fullest


Cambrai the final offensive of 1917

Cambrai – The Final Offensive of 1917

  • The Blood bath continues – only with better tactics

  • Biggest concern of Allies during Fall of 1917?

    • Why does it turn out to be a legitimate concern?

      • ?_________take power – significance?

        • End of the ?__________ Front- so…?

    • More German troops to fight where?

      • Made worse by Italian defeat at Caporetto, and…

    • Worse: SS success against allied shipping

      • Result? British Operational objective?

  • Operational & tactical objectives:

    • Capture German ?_________ bases (again)

    • Tactical focus:

      • Breakthrough?_________________ Line

      • Concentrate attack in vicinity of Cambrai

Russiawill make ?_______ _____!


Tactics serving intelligence

Tactics Serving Intelligence

  • Intel:What does an analysis of the terrain conclude?

    • Terrain viewed as ideal for what recent tactical innovation?

  • As a result, LTC JFC Fuller developed plan for a limited raid employing ?__________ as primary assault force

    • What happened as higher HQ reviews his plan?

      • They (Byng- 3rd Army & Haig) ?________________________!

      • What happened as a result?

  • Fuller’s limited tank raid grew to a full scale ?________ Plan aimed at breaking through ?__________ ________

    • Now in addition to ?______, employs infantry, arty, air recon

    • All aimed at a major ?______________________


Battle plan preparations

Battle Plan & Preparations

  • Force Disposition & assigned mission tasks:

  • British 3rd Army (on 6 mile front)

    • 4 divisions on line

    • 1 division to follow with 4 divisions in reserve

  • To the rear:

    • 5 Cavalry divisions to exploit gap made by infantry

      • Haig’s romantic use of old for new situation?

      • (Old ways of war die hard for old generals)

  • Royal Flying Corps: provide air support:

    • Reconnaissance, combat air support, dogfights

  • Artillery Support: precision pre-registered targets:

    • What tactic allowed pre-registered targets?

    • Artillery Support: precision pre-?____________ of targets:

    • Prior “flash-bang” (?) recordings of azimuth on Battle Maps

  • Anything else?


Royal tank corps

Royal Tank Corps

  • Supports 3rd Army with 3 Tank Brigades:

    • 476 total tanks (374 combat & Mark IVs);

    • Aligned w/3 tanks & infantry companies following each tank:

  • Tanks could cross total of 3 trenches- why/how?

    • ?________________________

:::::::: []-

::::::::: []-

::::::: []-


Cambrai execution

Cambrai – Execution

  • Watch word for battle- precision & surprise:

  • Tactical surprise:

    • Key factor making it possible?

    • No prolonged ?____ preparation

      • Why & how possible?

    • ?___________fire (survey Maps) enhances surprise

    • Ludendorff’s subsequent comments on attack supported above tactic

  • Initial success:

    • By close of D-Day:Brits had punched a hole 3 miles deep;

    • German main defense & support line had been penetrated:

    • Deepest penetration since start of trench warfare!


Friction german recovery

Friction & German Recovery

  • Brits had lost 179 tanks (of 374) by D+2

    • Some cmdrs ignored Tank/infantrycoordinated tactics

      • MG Harper of 51st Division at Flesquieres in particular

    • Sent infantry forward in waves

    • Tanks forced to advance alone & unsupported by infantry

    • Hit by German machine guns & arty=> high casualties of both

  • Germansgraduallyrecovered from initial surprise & shock:

    • German resistance stiffens by reserves sent to line & counterattack

    • By D+3: British advance slowed


British offensive stalled

British Offensive Stalled

  • By 30 Nov: 3rd Army cramped into 7X8 mile salient:

    • Germans (now reinforced) counter-attack British Left Front &Right Flank

    • Push Allies back to initial D-Day position

  • As advance stalls, old conventions & tactics resurface:

    • Half measures again employed

    • Germans exploit & attack as Allies withdraw

    • Result: high casualties with no operational gain

  • Almost 70% attrition of tanks engaged

    • Last major battle fought on NW front in 1917

    • Alliesnow settle in to await American forces


Assessment

Assessment

  • Cambrai spurs mass production of improved tanks;

  • French & British suffered massive causalities by 1917:

    • especially at Chemin des Dames & Passchendaele

  • Allies learned some hard & bitter lessons:

    • Defense likely to prevail over offense (all else constant)

    • Limited offensives have better chance than breakthrough- why?

  • Tactical Innovationsincorporated by Allies:

    • Coordinated ?___________ & infantry assaults a must!

    • Tank & air support offer great potential support

    • Surprise & precision ?______ fire offer good initial advantage

    • Mask intentions & timing of attack by pre-registered arty bombardment


Assessment 2

Assessment- 2

  • Central Powers won victories & devised new tactics:

    • Battle of Caporettocrippled Italian front

    • Battle of Rigaover Russians had major impact:

      • Eastern Front ceased to exist

      • Bolsheviks take Russia out of war (Brest-Litovsk)

      • Germans reinforce NW Front for 1918 ?________ Offensive

  • German Tactical Innovations:

    • Defense in depth & ?______________ defense;

    • Hurricane Fires(future WWII Blitzkrieg Offense)


Ww1 casualties

WW1 CASUALTIES

  • Country Dead Wounded Prisoner

  • Great Britain 947,000 2,122,000 192,000

  • France1,385,000 3,044,000 446,000

  • Russia1,700,000 4,950,000 2,500.000

  • Italy 460,000 947.000 530,000

  • United States 115,000 206,000 4.500

  • Germany1,808,000 4,247,000 618,000

  • Austria- Hungary1,200,000 3,620,000 2,200,000

  • Turkey 325,000 400,000 NA


  • Login