Theoretical Particle-Astrophysics
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Theoretical Particle-Astrophysics At Fermilab. Dan Hooper Theoretical Astrophysics Group Fermi National Laboratory [email protected] Annual DOE Review May 17, 2006. How To Study Particle Physics?. Traditionally, particle physics has been studied using collider experiments

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Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Theoretical Particle-Astrophysics

At Fermilab

Dan Hooper

Theoretical Astrophysics Group

Fermi National Laboratory

[email protected]

Annual DOE Review

May 17, 2006


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

How To Study Particle Physics?

  • Traditionally, particle physics has been studied using collider experiments

  • Incredibly high luminosity beams; very large numbers of collisions can be observed

  • Energy is technology/cost limited:

  • Tevatron (1.96 TeV)

  • LHC (14 TeV)


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

How To Study Particle Physics?

  • Astrophysical accelerators are known to accelerate particles to at least ~1020 eV (center-of-mass energies of hundreds of TeV)

  • Opportunities to study stable or extremely long lived particles (neutralinos, or other WIMPs, axions, topological defects, etc.)

  • Extremely long baseline

  • measurement possible

  • Provides a natural complementarity with collider experiments


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Activity in Theoretical Particle-Astrophysics at Fermilab

  • Particle Dark Matter

  • High Energy Cosmic Ray and Neutrino Physics

  • Early Universe Particle Cosmology (lepto/baryogenesis, BBN,…)


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Activity in Theoretical Particle-Astrophysics at Fermilab

  • Particle Dark Matter

  • High Energy Cosmic Ray and Neutrino Physics

  • Early Universe Particle Cosmology (lepto/baryogenesis, BBN,…)

CDMS

Pierre Auger Observatory

Minos, MiniBooNE

Tevatron


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Activity in Theoretical Particle-Astrophysics at Fermilab

  • Particle Dark Matter

  • High Energy Cosmic Ray and Neutrino Physics

  • Early Universe Particle Cosmology (lepto/baryogenesis, BBN,…)

  • Physics Beyond the Standard Model (SUSY, extra dimensions,…)

CDMS

Pierre Auger Observatory

Minos, MiniBooNE

Tevatron

Particle Theory Group


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Particle Dark Matter

  • M. Carena, DH, P. Skands, Implications of direct dark matter searches for MSSM Higgs searches at the Tevatron (hep-ph/0603180)

  • G. Zaharijas, DH, Challenges in Detecting Gamma-Rays From Dark Matter Annihilations in the Galactic Center (accepted by PRD, astro-ph/0603540)

  • G. Bertone, A. Zenter, J. Silk, A new signature of dark matter annihilations: gamma-rays from intermediate-mass black holes (PRD, astro-ph/0509565)

  • P. Fayet, DH, G. Sigl, Constraints on light dark matter from core-collapse supernovae (hep-ph/0602169)

  • L. Bergstrom, DH, Dark matter and gamma-rays from Draco: MAGIC, GLAST and CACTUS (PRD, hep-ph/0512317)

  • F. Halzen, DH, Prospects for detecting dark matter with neutrino telescopes in light of recent results from direct detection experiments (PRD, hep-ph/0509352)

  • T. Flacke, DH, J. March-Russell, Improved bounds on universal extra dimensions and consequences for LKP dark matter (PRD, hep-ph/0509352)

  • J. Gunion, DH, B. McElrath, Light neutralino dark matter in the NMSSM (PRD, hep-ph/0509024)


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Particle Dark Matter

How Do We Detect Dark Matter?

Numerous methods of direct and indirect detection are being explored; vast room for theoretical activity


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Particle Dark Matter

  • How Do We Detect Dark Matter?

  • Gamma-ray telescopes can potentially discover dark matter by observing annihilation radiation (Hess, Magic, Veritas, Glast)

  • The center of our galaxy has long been considered the most likely region to generate such a signal

  • Recently, four gamma-ray telescopes have detected ~TeV emission from the galactic center


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Particle Dark Matter

  • How Do We Detect Dark Matter?

  • The spectrum measured from the galactic center extends to at least ~10 TeV, and appears to not fit the prediction of annihilating dark matter

  • Presence of new astrophysical source greatly reduces prospects for dark matter detection with planned experiments

Excluded by HESS

Excluded by EGRET

Undetectable by GLAST

(G. Zaharijas and DH, 2006)


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Particle Dark Matter

  • How Do We Detect Dark Matter?

  • The spectrum measured from the galactic center extends to at least ~10 TeV, and appears to not fit the prediction of annihilating dark matter

  • Presence of new astrophysical source greatly reduces prospects for dark matter detection with planned experiments

  • Look to other sources of potentially observable dark matter annihilation radiation:

  • -Dwarf Spheriodal Galaxies (L. Bergstrom and DH, 2005)

  • -Intermediate mass galactic black holes (G. Bertone, Zentner, Silk, 2005)

Dark Matter Radiation From ~100 IMBHs May Be Observable

(Bertone, Zentner, Silk, 2005)


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Particle Dark Matter

  • How Do We Detect It?

  • What Will A Detection Reveal To Us?

  • There is a big difference between measuring rates in dark matter experiments and identifying the particle nature of a WIMP

  • Can various models be discriminated from astrophysical observables? Could SUSY parameters be constrained, or measured?

  • Much more theoretical work is needed to make the most out of any future detection/discovery


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Particle Dark Matter

What Will A Detection Reveal To Us?

  • The direct detection (neutralino-nuclei elastic scattering) rate provides information on neutralino composition, mA, and tan 

(Carena, DH, Skands, 2006; DH, A. Taylor, 2006)


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Particle Dark Matter

What Will A Detection Reveal To Us?

  • The direct detection (neutralino-nuclei elastic scattering) rate provides information on neutralino composition, mA, and tan 

  • Rates in neutrino telescopes depend on spin-dependent scattering cross section with protons (higgsino composition)

(DH, A. Taylor, 2006)


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Particle Dark Matter

What Will A Detection Reveal To Us?

  • The direct detection (neutralino-nuclei elastic scattering) rate provides information on neutralino composition, mA, and tan 

  • Rates in neutrino telescopes depend on spin-dependent scattering cross section with protons (higgsino composition)

  • Combining these and other astrophysical inputs can (in many models) allow for a determination of parameters such as  or tan , beyond that which can be made at the Tevatron or LHC

LHC+Relic Density

Actual Value

+ CDMS

(DH, A. Taylor,

2006)


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Particle Dark Matter

What Will A Detection Reveal To Us?

Much Work Remains To Be Done


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Ultra-High Energy Particle-Astro Physics

  • E.J. Ahn, M. Cavaglia, Simulations of black hole air showers in cosmic ray detectors (PRD, hep-ph/0511159)

  • L. Anchordoqui, T. Han, DH, S. Sarkar, Exotic neutrino interactions at the Pierre Auger Observatory(Astropart. Phys, hep-ph/0508312)

  • N. Busca, DH, E. Kolb, Pierre auger data, photons, and top-down cosmic ray models(astro-ph/0603055)

  • F. Halzen, DH, A limit on the ultra-high energy neutrino flux from AMANDA (astro-ph/0605XXX)


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Ultra-High Energy Particle-Astro Physics

  • What is the origin of the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays?

  • Extremely high energy cosmic ray events (super-GZK) may imply the existence of local sources (AGN, GRB, etc.), or of new physics

  • No local astrophysical sources are known

  • New physics proposals have included top-down models (ie. WIMPzillas!) and new exotic particles or interactions (ie. strongly interacting neutrinos)

  • Neutrino and gamma-ray observations, in addition to further cosmic ray data (Pierre Auger Observatory) will likely be needed to resolve this question


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Ultra-High Energy Particle-Astro Physics

Searching for Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos

  • Current limits on UHE neutrinos are only a factor of ~5 below standard predictions

(F. Halzen, DH, 2006)


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Ultra-High Energy Particle-Astro Physics

Searching for Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos

  • Numerous techniques are approaching the level of sensitivity needed to observe UHE neutrinos (AMANDA/IceCube, RICE, Auger, ANITA)

  • The First Ultra-High Energy Neutrino Detection is Imminent!

(F. Halzen, DH, 2006)


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Ultra-High Energy Particle-Astro Physics

  • What is the origin of the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays?

  • What fundamental physics can be probed with Cosmic Ultra-High Energy Particles?

  • Extremely high energy collisions-beyond the reach of colliders

  • Wide range of exotic physics scenarios can be tested


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Ultra-High Energy Particle-Astro Physics

Fundamental Physics with Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos

  • Neutrino-nucleon cross section measurements possible at Auger, IceCube (downgoing rate to rate through Earth)

  • TeV-scale gravity, SM electroweak instantons, R-parity violating SUSY models

Microscopic Black Hole Production

Earth-Skimming

Rate Suppressed

Downgoing Rate Enhanced

(Anchordoqui, Han, DH, Sarkar, Astropart.Phys., 2005)


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Summary and Conclusions

  • Research in particle dark matter, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, high-energy neutrinos, and other areas of particle-astrophysics are very active and exciting at Fermilab

  • Interaction with experimental groups (CDMS, Pierre Auger) and particle theory group make Fermilab an excellent place to study this multi-disciplinary science


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

Particle-Astrophysics: A Multi-Disciplinary Science

  • Strong interactions with particle theory group (joint pizza meetings/seminars) and experimentalists (munch, astro-coffee)

  • Two new postdocs strong in multiple fields to be joining our group this fall (Pasquale Serpico, Jason Steffen)


Dan hooper theoretical astrophysics group fermi national laboratory dhooper fnal

THANK YOU


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