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CHAPTER 6. PERCEPTION. Selective Attention. Selective Attention: the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus. Selective Attention.

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CHAPTER 6

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Chapter 6

CHAPTER 6

PERCEPTION


Selective attention

Selective Attention

  • Selective Attention:the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus


Selective attention1

Selective Attention

  • Cocktail-Party Effect:the ability to attend to one of several speech streams while ignoring others (just as one is able to attend to one conversation among others at a cocktail party). In cases such as cocktail parties, the mention of one’s name is processed even if it occurs in an unattended speech stream.


Selective attention2

Selective Attention

  • Inattentional blindness: failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

    • Change blindness http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vBPG_OBgTWg

    • Change deafness

    • Choice blindness

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2pK0BQ9CUHk&feature=fvst


Perceptual illusions

Perceptual Illusions

  • Visual Capture

    • The tendency for vision to dominate all other senses.

      • Example?


Perceptual organization

Perceptual Organization

  • Gestalt:

    • In German “Gestalt” means whole or form. The Gestalt psychologists studied perception and emphasized the fact that we can not study perception by examining its individual parts because quite often the whole is different (or more) than the sum of its parts.


Form perception

Form Perception

  • Figure-Ground

    • Relating to the principle that perceptions have two parts; a figure that stand out in good contour (the main elements of a scene), and an indistinct homogeneous background


Chapter 6

Look at the plus sign in the middle, the pink/purple dots will disappear and be replaced by a green ring.


Chapter 6

The circles are not moving. If you look at one it remains stationary while the other circles are moving.


Chapter 6

Stare at the four black dots in the center of the image for 30 - 60 seconds. Then quickly close your eyes and look at something bright (like a lamp or a window with sunlight coming through it). You should see a white circle with an image inside it.


Chapter 6

An Old Woman or a Young Lady?


Gestalt rules of grouping

Gestalt Rules of Grouping

  • Proximity: The closer objects are to one another, the more likely they are to be perceived as belonging together

We perceive the picture figures below as one group of 2 circles, one single circle and another group of 2 circles.

Can you come up with examples of proximity as it relates to real life?


Gestalt rules of grouping1

Gestalt Rules of Grouping

  • Similarity: Similar elements are perceived to be part of a group.

    • For instance, all the players wearing blue shirts are from the University of Michigan, all those wearing red are represent the University of Wisconsin

      XOXO

      XOXO

      XOXO

      XOXO

We see two columns of Xs and two columns of Os not four rows of XOXO


Gestalt rules of grouping2

Gestalt Rules of Grouping

  • Continuity:Sensations that appear to create a continuous form are perceived as belonging together

Once an object appears to move in a particular direction, your brain assumes that the movement continues unchanged. On some smaller highways, for example, you can easily miss your turn unless you really pay attention to the signs. We tend to assume that the highway continues in the direction we’ve been moving


Gestalt rules of grouping3

Gestalt Rules of Grouping

  • Connectedness

    • We perceive spots, lines, or areas as a single unit when uniform and linked


Gestalt rules of grouping4

Gestalt Rules of Grouping

  • Closure

    • The tendency to fill in missing contours to form a complete object

We perceive these objects as a circle and a square.

http://www.exploratorium.edu/brain_explorer/jumping.html


Gestalt rules of grouping5

Gestalt Rules of Grouping


Gestalt rules of grouping6

Gestalt Rules of Grouping

  • Common Fate:Sets of objects that move in the same direction at the same speed are perceived together

    • Examples: A flock of birds flying in a V formation, though separated in space, will be perceived as a group


Depth perception

Depth Perception

  • Depth Perception:The perception of distance, allowing us to experience the world in three dimensions.

    • Monocular Depth cues

    • Binocular Depth cues


Depth perception1

Depth Perception

  • Visual Cliff

    Gibson and Walk

    discovered that

    6 month old infants

    would not crawl to

    their mothers if the were

    on the “deep” side


Depth perception2

Depth Perception

  • Binocular Cues: Depth cues requiring the use of two eye


Depth perception3

Depth Perception

  • Retinal Disparity:A depth cue based on the difference between the retinal images received by each eye

    • Closer objects have

      more retinal disparity

      than objects farther


Depth perception4

Depth Perception

  • As retinal disparity increases, perceived distance _________________.

  • As retinal disparity decreases, perceived distance _________________.


Depth perception5

Depth Perception

  • Convergence:A depth cue resulting from rotation of the eyes so that the image of an object can be projected on each retina. The rotating of the eyes causes feelings of tension in the eye muscle. This tension is stronger when objects are closer


Depth perception6

Depth Perception

  • Monocular Depth cues:Depth cues requiring the use of only one eye

    • Linear Perspective

    • Relative Size

    • Reduced Clarity

    • Interposition/Overlapping

    • Texture Gradient

    • Relative Height


Depth perception7

Depth Perception

  • Relative Size:If two objects are assumed to be the same size, the object producing a larger image on the retina is perceived as closer than the one producing a smaller images


Depth perception8

Depth Perception

  • Interposition/Overlapping:Closer objects block the view of objects farther away


Depth perception9

Depth Perception

  • Reduced Clarity:Faraway objects seem less clear and less detailed


Depth perception10

Depth Perception

  • Texture Gradient:A graduated change in the texture, or “grain” of the visual field. Texture appears finer as distance increases and coarser as the distance decreases.


Depth perception11

Depth Perception

  • Relative height:More distant objects are usually higher in the visual field than those nearby


Depth perception12

Depth Perception

  • Linear Perspective:The closer together two converging lines are, the greater the perceived distance


Depth perception13

Depth Perception

  • Light and Shadow

    (Relative Brightness)

    A depth cue whereby dimmer objects appear to be farther away than bright objects


Depth perception14

Depth Perception

  • Relative Motion (Motion Parallax)

    When we are in motion, nearby objects will appear to move by rapidly while objects that are farther away will appear to move more slowly


Motion perception

Motion Perception

  • Our basic assumption is that shrinking objects are retreating, not shrinking and that enlarging objects are approaching

  • Stroboscopic Motion:the illusion of movement produced by showing the rapid progression of images or objects that are not moving at all

  • Phi Phenomenon: An illusion of apparent movement when two lights flash on and off in quick succession. The light appears to move from one location to the other

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gAvTTlXyzmE&feature=related


Perception

Perception

  • Perceptual Constancy: The ability to maintain a perception of the properties of an object (e.g. size, shape, color) regardless of changes in the actual stimulus conditions, such as the level of illumination, or image size on the retina


Perceptual interpretation

Perceptual Interpretation

  • Our perception is due to an interaction between nature and nurture

  • Critical Period

    • The critical period for normal sensory and perceptual development is in infancy


Perceptual adaptation

Perceptual Adaptation

  • Humans are able to adapt perceptually. When people wear displacement goggles, they manage to adapt their movements and, with practice, to move about with ease. (Although kittens and monkey can also adapt, chicks cannot)


Perception1

Perception

  • Perceptual Set

    A readiness or predisposition to perceive a stimulus in a certain way. Perceptual sets can save us time that is usually consumed by additional detail processing of stimulus features, but they can also lead to perceptual errors.

    Once we have formed a wrong idea about reality, we have more difficulty seeing the truth


Rat man illusion

Rat-Man Illusion


What do these letters spell

What do these letters spell?

Folk

Croak

Soak

Yolk


Perception2

Perception

  • Schemas:

    • Mental representation of what we know, and have come to expect about the world


Perception3

Perception

  • Context Effects

    • A given stimulus may trigger radically different perceptions because of the immediate context. For example, we discern whether a speaker said “morning” or “mourning” or “dye” or “die” from the surrounding words.


Perception and the human factor

Perception and the Human Factor

  • Human Factors Psychologists: Explore how people and machines interact and how physical environments can be adapted to human behaviors. They help to

    design appliances, machines,

    and work settings that fit our

    natural perceptions.


Is there extrasensory perception

Is There Extrasensory Perception?

  • Extrasensory Perception (ESP): alleged awareness of external events by other means than the known sensory channels.

  • Parapsychology: the systematic study of alleged psychological phenomena involving the transfer of information or energy that cannot be explained in terms of presently known scientific data or laws


Is there extrasensory perception1

Is There Extrasensory Perception?

  • Three most testable varieties of ESP

    • Telepathy: mind reading, thought transference

    • Clairvoyance: the alleged ability to “see” beyond the normal range of sight, such as distant or hidden objects or events in the past or future

    • Precognition: the purported ability to see or experience future events


Is there extrasensory perception2

Is There Extrasensory Perception?

  • Psychokinesis: the alleged ability to control external events and move or change the shape of objects through the power of thought. An example is bending a piece of metal by exerting “mind over matter”

Anyone who believes in psychokinesis, raise my hand


Is there extrasensory perception3

Is There Extrasensory Perception?

  • Premonitions or Pretensions?

    • Research psychologists remain skeptical because the acts of so-called psychics have typically turned out to be nothing more than the illusions of stage magicians, because checks of psychic visions have been no more accurate than guesses made by others, and because sheer chance guarantees that some stunning coincidences are sure to occur


Is there extrasensory perception4

Is There Extrasensory Perception?

  • Putting ESP to Experimental Test

    • An important reason for psychologists skepticism, is the absence of reproducible ESP results. In addition, to believe in ESP, one must believe that the brain is capable of perceiving without sensory input.


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