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Victims and Victimology. Basic Questions/Data Gathering Effects of Victimization Theories of Victimization. The Level and Cost of Victimization. 37 million criminal incidents (1996) Including estimates of non-NCVS crimes, 49 million Cost: $450 billion?.

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victims and victimology

Victims and Victimology

Basic Questions/Data Gathering

Effects of Victimization

Theories of Victimization

the level and cost of victimization
The Level and Cost of Victimization
  • 37 million criminal
  • incidents (1996)
  • Including estimates of non-NCVS crimes, 49 million
  • Cost: $450 billion?
how do we know the cost of crime
How do we know the “cost” of crime?
  • Tangible Costs
    • To Victim
    • To Society
  • Intangible Costs
    • To Victim
    • To Society
estimating victim loss through jury awards
Estimating victim loss through jury awards
  • Looking only at cases that go to civil (tort) court
    • Are these a representative sample of “complete” and “incomplete” crime?
    • Think of the “typical” assault.
      • Is it worth $9,350?
  • PROBLEM: use of this data to justify the expense of prison
immediate problems of crime victims
Immediate Problems of Crime Victims
  • Financial Loss
    • Property
    • Wages
    • Medical Expenses
  • Physical and Emotional Pain
post victimization suffering
Post-Victimization Suffering
  • “Double Victimization”
    • Intensive questioning by police
    • What is going on in the case?
    • Property is often kept for a long time
  • Psychological Harm
    • Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, fear, antisocial behaviors
where do victimizations take place
Where do Victimizations Take Place?
  • Urban areas (more than rural)
  • Certain neighborhoods (and areas within these neighborhoods)
  • Open, public areas and businesses
what demographic characteristics are related to victimization
What Demographic Characteristics are Related to Victimization?
  • Gender
  • Social Status
  • Marital Status
  • Age
  • Race/Ethnicity
victim offender relationships
Victim-Offender Relationships
  • Crime tends to be intra-racial rather than inter-racial
  • In violent crimes, the victim is at least “well known” to the offender in 40% of the cases.
    • Much less often in property cases
theories of victimization
Theories of Victimization
  • Explain who gets victimized and/or why
    • Victim Precipitation theory
    • Lifestyle Theories
    • Routine Activities Theory
victim precipitation theory
Victim Precipitation Theory
  • Active (e.g., take the first swing)
    • Rape?
  • Passive? (e.g., love triangle)
  • Difference between empirical documentation and normative statements
    • Empirical facts do not “excuse” or justify
lifestyle theories
Lifestyle Theories
  • All of these designed to explain the correlates of victimization
    • High Risk Lifestyle
    • Equivalent Group Hypothesis
    • Proximity Hypothesis
routine activities theory
Routine Activities Theory
  • To predict “direct predatory crime”
  • The convergence in time and space of:
    • Motivated Offenders
    • Suitable Targets
    • Lack of Capable Guardianship
  • Usually assume presence of offenders
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