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Black Holes PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Black Holes . This one’s green. I like green. . What happens after a SN?. Material remaining after a supernova is 3 times more massive than the sun or more Pressure is strong enough to collapse the star beyond the neutron-degenerate pressure. Star remnant collapses and vanishes.

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Black Holes

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Black holes l.jpg

Black Holes

This one’s green.

I like green.


What happens after a sn l.jpg

What happens after a SN?

  • Material remaining after a supernova is 3 times more massive than the sun or more

  • Pressure is strong enough to collapse the star beyond the neutron-degenerate pressure.

  • Star remnant collapses and vanishes.


Characteristics of a black hole l.jpg

Characteristics of a black hole

  • MATTER IN A BLACK HOLE LOSES ALMOST ALL OF ITS ORIGINAL CHARACTERISTICS!

  • Retains only:

    • Mass (therefore the gravity)

    • Its angular momentum

      *** All other characteristics no longer exist!

  • concepts like protons, electrons, neutrons, molecules, compounds etc. no longer apply.


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??? I have a headache.

  • Escape Speed- speed needed for an object to escape the gravity of another.

    • Bigger mass= bigger grav, then bigger ES

    • Smaller radius= bigger grav, then bigger ES

  • The escape speed for a black hole is greater than the speed of light.

  • Nothing can exceed the speed of light (except Bause when he runs towards the lunch line) SO nothing can escape a BH


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Singularity

  • General relativity (Einstein) predicts that in creating a black hole, matter compresses to infinite density.

  • ALL known laws of physics are invalid.

  • Recall Relativity explains the behavior of the really massive, quantum mechanics explains the behavior of the really small (subatomic stuff). A black hole is both REALLY massive and REALLY small.


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Schwarzschild radius

  • The radius that matter (any matter, does it matter?) must be compressed for it to have an escape speed equal to the speed of light.

  • All objects have a SR

    • Earth = 1 cm or a grape

    • Jupiter = 3 cm or 3 grapes (I’m not creative)

    • Sun = 3 km


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Event Horizon

  • The location around a black hole where the escape speed EQUALS the speed of light.

  • Everything in the EH is lost forever. No information can be gathered from within.

  • Outside of the EH, everything appears to “slow”… called gravitational redshift


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Gravitational Redshift

  • Speed of light is CONSTANT through constant medium.

  • In order for light to escape gravity it must work (use energy). Greater the grav, more energy.

  • SO, light will lose energy and shift towards red portion of electromagnetic spectrum (longer wavelength)


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Gravitational Lens

  • Gravity can bend light rays.

  • This can allow us to see objects normally too far for us to see.

  • Bause diagram.


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All galaxies… ranging from 3 bill. ly to 9 bill ly.


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Sphagettification?


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Infalling Matter

  • Matter closest to the BH will be pulled greater, stretching the matter.

  • Eventually pulled apart, atom by atom.


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Does a black hole last forever?

  • Nope.

  • They can evaporate through Hawking Radiation (more in your lab).

  • Process takes a LONG time. A 5 solar mass black hole would take 1062 years to evaporate. So, black holes that have formed, still exist today.


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Supermassive Black Holes

  • All elliptical and spiral galaxies seem to have one in the center. Irregular galaxies (aka dwarf galaxies) do not.

  • A black hole with the mass of millions to billions of Suns!


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