How are work and the economy changing
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HOW ARE WORK AND THE ECONOMY CHANGING? PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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HOW ARE WORK AND THE ECONOMY CHANGING?. WALT: Have a basic knowledge of the work industry in the past and how it is changing today. WILF: Consideration of the facts when considering goals for the future. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ILQrUrEWe8&feature=related. WORK IN THE LAST 100 YEARS.

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HOW ARE WORK AND THE ECONOMY CHANGING?

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HOW ARE WORK AND THE ECONOMY CHANGING?

WALT: Have a basic knowledge of the work industry in the past and how it is changing today.

WILF: Consideration of the facts when considering goals for the future.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ILQrUrEWe8&feature=related


WORK IN THE LAST 100 YEARS

  • Big changes in manufacturing industry in terms of work processes and the targeting of products

  • Changes in office-work particularly as a result of Information Technology

  • Changes in the experience of work for the employee in terms of less security of employment and the pressures of the job

  • Now the recession threatens jobs for many people


MASS PRODUCTION

  • ‘Fordism’: named after Henry Ford who invented mass production in the making of cars at start of last century

  • Fordism dominated production until last few decades of last century

  • Assembly line, repetitive tasks, low skill, limited range of standardised products: cars, food, furniture, electrical products

  • Costs are relatively low because of volume and because of low labour costs


POST FORDISM INTO THIS CENTURY

  • Manufacturing more flexible eg computer controlled machine tools can be reprogrammed to make different products

  • Goods can be made in small batches to suit segments of the market

  • Can respond to changing demand and fashion

  • Workers have to be more flexible and ‘expendable’

  • ‘Just in time’ delivery of parts

  • Work franchised out to small businesses


CORE AND PERIPHERAL WORKERS

  • CORE WORKERS are employed full time, are multi-skilled and can work in different parts of company: managers, designers, technical sales staff, technicians, quality control staff. Jobs are secure

  • PERIPHERAL WORKERS Full time workers on short term contracts, part-time workers. Enables company to reduce or increase workforce easily. Some work sub-contracted or given to self-employed workers


OFFICE WORK

Revolutionised by Information Technology which means work does not have to be done in the office:

  • Fax

  • Computers,

  • Email,

  • Mobile phones

  • Nor do work tasks have to be carried in the company itself but can be ‘farmed out’ across the world to call centres or data processing centres


EFFECTS OF GLOBALISATION

  • This refers to stronger connections between different parts of the world economy especially rich and poor countries

  • Employers exploit low wages in the Third World by moving production to such countries

  • This pushes down wages in the developed world because we have to compete with cheap products

  • This can replace jobs in developed world eg British textile industry


THE CHANGING EXPERIENCE OF WORK

  • In many ways work has improved: less dangerous, decline of heavy industry, more healthy working conditions

  • Will Hutton in ‘The State We Are In’, argues, however, that for many people work has become much less secure and increasingly a source of stress

  • The global economic recession has increased insecurity


THE BOTTOM 30%

  • Disadvantaged compared to rest of workforce

  • Some unemployed and may never have worked

  • Some will receive no benefit

  • Some on government training schemes

  • A high proportion live in poverty

  • Live in poor housing and unstimulating environments


INTERMEDIATE 30%

  • Marginalised and insecure workers with little job security

  • Jobs with few benefits

  • Include part-time and casual workers. Over 80% of part-time are women

  • May be on fixed term contracts

  • Little employment protection eg no redundancy pay, weak unionisation. Increasing number of them will be self-employed

  • Earn less than half average wages


THE TOP 40%

  • Full time and self-employed workers who have held their jobs for more than two years

  • Part-times who have held their jobs for more than five years

  • May have benefited from share ownership or profit sharing schemes and have stake in company

  • BUT many of the jobs in this category are becoming more insecure and subject to short term contracts


THE CONSEQUENCES

  • Changes in work and weakening of trade union laws have strengthened the position of employers

  • Changes in work processes and contracts have made the job security of many people very fragile

  • The greater ‘efficiency’ resulting from this has negative effects on health, stress levels and rates of depression, all of which are deteriorating

  • Workers are even more vulnerable to downturn in the economy and have less protection and job security


Student Activity

  • What job do you expect to go into eventually?

  • How many jobs do you expect to have in your lifetime?

  • How will you survive in old age?


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