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Organizaci ón de los Estados Americanos. XVII Conferencia Interamericana de Ministros de Trabajo El flagelo del trabajo infantil: Un obstáculo para el desarrollo integral de las sociedades Patricia Espinosa Torres 31 octubre - 1 noviembre 2011 San Salvador, El Salvador. M ÉXICO. Context.

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Organizaci n de los estados americanos

Organización de los Estados Americanos

XVII Conferencia Interamericana de Ministros de Trabajo

El flagelo del trabajo infantil:

Un obstáculo para el desarrollo

integral de las sociedades

Patricia Espinosa Torres

31 octubre - 1 noviembre 2011

San Salvador, El Salvador

MÉXICO


Organizaci n de los estados americanos

Context

  • Child labor impedes the healthy development and education of our children. It restricts their life options and perpetuates the poverty of those groups of society in most need.

  • Millions of children around the world have to work in order to make a contribution to their families’ income. However, in doing so, they give away their education, their free time and the rights they are entitled to.

  • Mexico has emphatically confirmed its determination to work against child labour, by signing international commitments (ILO´s Convention No. 182, UN’s Millenium Development Goals, the Convention on the Rights of the Children).

No underage should be working at all


Organizaci n de los estados americanos

Facts

Around the world, 215 millions of children are working.

115 millions are employed in hazardous activities.

In Mexico, there are 28,247,936 children between 5 and 17 years old (26.2% of population).

  • 19.2 millions are 5-13 years old.

  • 9.1 millions are 14-17 years old.

3,014,800 children (5-17 years old) are employed (66.9% male; 33.1% female).

  • 856,123 are 5-13 years old (28.4%).

  • 2,158,677 are 14-17 years old (71.6%).

The children in the most hazardous situation are those who work for someone who is not a family member:

58% of those children do not go to school


Organizaci n de los estados americanos

Mexico’s Policy Against Child Labor

  • Reliable information gathered by scientific methods

  • International cooperation, institutional coordination and multi-sectoral approach

  • Law surveillance and enforcement


Organizaci n de los estados americanos

Mexico’s Policy Against Child Labor

A. Information: Módulo de Trabajo Infantil (Census on Child Labor)

  • Information was gathered in 2007 and 2009, by means of the National Labor and Employment Census (ENOE), made by Mexico’s Census Bureau (INEGI).

  • 2011 edition is in progress during this trimester

  • It provides disaggregate, country-wide information and accurate profiles on children’s (5-17 years old) education, labor and domestic work.

  • It guarantees comparability with other national and international statistics.

  • A valuable tool for the evaluation and design of effective policies.

Mexican Government’s Priority:

A social policy that improves the social conditions (nutrition, health, skills, education) of the poorest groups of society and that helps their children to stay in school


Organizaci n de los estados americanos

Mexico’s Policy Against Child Labor

A. Information: Módulo de Trabajo Infantil (Census on Child Labour)

Methodological Virtues:

  • International institutions’ support

  • Statistically representative on a national and state-wide level.

  • Highly reliable and accurate data

  • 100% of the households included by the ENOE

  • Wide in a geographic and thematic sense

  • Remarkable findings

  • Between 2007 and 2009, child labour rate decreased from 12.5% to 10.7% (632,000 children are working no more).

  • Working children come mainly from poor households.

  • Their parents have low literacy levels.

  • Most children are working in the primary sector (42%), followed by those working on commerce (22%).


Organizaci n de los estados americanos

Mexico’s Policy Against Child Labor

B.

Institutional coordination and multi-sectoral approach

Multi-sectoral and institutional coordination

  • With the participation of civil society, private sector, labor unions and institutions from all three levels of government.

  • Forums and workshops (1,500 members from more than 600 organizations).

  • Multi-sectoral Commitment Charters to fight ilegal child labor and protect the rights of (legal) underage workers.

International cooperation

  • “Stop Child Labor in Agriculture”: joint project with ILO’s International Programme on the Elimmination of Child Labor (IPEC).

  • The U.S Department of Labor supports the project with funding: 4,750,000 U. S. dollars.


Organizaci n de los estados americanos

Mexico’s Policy Against Child Labor

C. Law surveillance and enforcement

President Mr. Felipe Calderón is supporting a proposal in order to reform Mexican Federal Labor Law:

  • It establishes harder penalties for those who violate the rights of the (legally) employed underage.

  • It defines as a crime that might be punished with jail, to employ a non-family child under the age of 14.

  • It forbides to employ children 14-16 years old that have not completed their elementary compulsory education.

  • It strenghtens law enforcement (federal inspection) and establishes harder penalties.


Organizaci n de los estados americanos

Mexico’s Policy Against Child Labor

C. Law surveillance and enforcement

  • Federal Inspections have been strenghtened in coordination with local authorities

The number of Federal Inspectors has been increased in 70%

In one single year, 279 Inspections to agricultural fields were made

  • A Tripartite Group of Experts was formed in order to make a List of Hazardous Work for Children.

  • It takes into account national and international regulations.

  • It will be authorized by a Tripartite Specialized Council on Security and Hygiene at Work (Comisión Consultiva Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, COCONASHT).


Organizaci n de los estados americanos

Mexico’s Policy Against Child Labor

D. Strategy for Agricultural Eventual Workers and their Families

  • There are 5’037,464 people working in agriculture, of which 41% (2’040,414) are eventual workers.

  • 434,961 (21.3%) of the agricultural eventual workers are migrant workers as well (57% men, 43% female).

Bad labor conditions:

  • Low wages.

  • Their incomes are not enough to survive when they are not working in the fields.

  • Eventual employment.

  • Hazardous work and limited access to public social security and health services.

Low wages are the main reason why children are incorporated to agricultural labor


Organizaci n de los estados americanos

Mexico’s Policy Against Child Labor

D. Strategy for Agricultural Eventual Workers and their Families

  • Law enforcement and inspection

  • Social security

  • Education

  • Development promotion

  • Information

It includes policies on:

  • Skills certification: “Citrics Harvest” and “Vegetables Harvest”

  • National System for Migrants’ School Registry (SINACEM)

  • It provides a nation-wide valid Certificate: in 2010 it was delivered to 43,545 agricultural eventual worker’s children.

  • Certificate: Child Labor Free Agricultural Enterprise

  • 21 Certificates have been granted to enterprises producing more than 20 kinds of crops.


Organizaci n de los estados americanos

Final Remarks

  • There cannot be a sustainable development that provides no guarantees for the future of our children.

  • Mexico bears a profound international commitment in fighting child labor.

  • Mexican policy is open to international cooperation, and nurtures from exchange of ideas and best practices. It is a policy based on democratic social dialogue.

  • To guarantee the healthy development of our children is essential so as to achieve higher leves of development and justice throughout our region.

  • For any society, to surrender before the challenge of eliminating child labour is to give up its future.

“Children are not only our main responsibility, they are as well the most cherished of our present and our future. In them we find our heart”

-President Felipe Calderón-


Organizaci n de los estados americanos

XVII Conferencia Interamericana de Ministros de Trabajo

Patricia Espinosa Torres

Viceminister of Labor Inclusion Policy

[email protected]

October 2011


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